第三周 概要写作


1、Read the following paragraph and compare the summaries. Decide which is the best. Researchers in France and the United States have recently reported that baboons are able to think abstractly. It has been known for some time that chimpanzees are capable of abstract thought, but baboons are a more distant relation to mankind. In the experiment, scientists trained two baboons to use a personal computer and a joystick. The animals had to match computer designs which were basically the same, but had superficial differences. In the experiment the baboons performed better than would be expected by chance. The researchers describe their study in an article in the Journal of Experimental Psychology.
    A、French and American scientists have shown for the first time that baboons have the ability to think in
 an abstract way. The animals were taught to use a computer, and then had to select patterns that were similar, which they did at a rate better than chance.
    B、Baboons are a kind of monkey more distant from
 man than chimpanzees. Although it is known that chimpanzees are able to think abstractly, until recently it was not clear if baboons could do the same. But new research by various scientists has shown that this is so.
    C、According to a recent article in the Journal of Experimental Psychology, baboons are able to 
think in an abstract way. The article describes how researchers trained two baboons to use a personal computer and a joystick. The animals did better than would be expected. --Academic writing: A Handbook for International Students by Stephen Bailey, 2006, London & New York: Routledge, p. 34

2、Read the following paragraph and compare the summaries. Decide which is the best. Sociolinguistics is concerned with the ethnography of speaking, that is, with cultural and subcultural patterns of speech variation in different social contexts. The sociolinguist might ask, for example, what kinds of things one talks about in casual conversations with a stranger. A foreigner may know English vocabulary and grammar well but may not know that one typically chats with a stranger about the weather or where one comes from, and not about what one ate that day or how much money one earns. A foreigner may be familiar with much of the culture of a North American city, but if that person divulges the real state of his or her health and feelings to the first person who says, “How are you?” he or she has much to learn about “small talk” in North American English. Similarly, North Americans tend to get confused in societies where greetings are quite different from ours. People in some other societies may ask a greeting, “Where are you going?” or “What are you cooking?” Some Americans may think such questions are rude; others may try to answer in excruciating detail, not realizing that only vague answers are expected, just as we don’t really expect a detailed answer when we ask people “How are you?” --Judith Resnick & Lanny Lester, Text & Thought, pp. 194-195
    A、A foreigner may be familiar with the English language but not with the appropriate topics for making small talk.
    B、North Americans may not respond appropriately to greetings in other societies.
    C、Conversation differs around the world.
    D、Sociolinguists are interested in how speech is used in different cultures and different social contexts, such as in making small talk and greeting people.

3、Paraphrase: Choose the choice that best explains the meaning of the original sentence. Nine out of ten doctors responding to a survey said they recommend our product to their patients if they recommend anything.
    A、Nine out of ten doctors recommend the product.
    B、Of the doctors who responded to a survey, nine out of ten doctors recommend the product.
    C、If they recommend anything, nine out of ten doctors responding to a survey recommend the product.
    D、Most doctors recommend the product.

4、Paraphrase: Choose the choice that best explains the meaning of the original sentence. This organization may succeed marvelously at what it wants to do, but what it wants to do may not be all that important.
    A、Although the organization may reach its goals, the goals might not be important.
    B、The organization is marvelous.
    C、What the organization wants is marvelous.
    D、The organization does not have a clear goal.

5、Paraphrase: Choose the choice that best explains the meaning of the original sentence. This book contains a totally new outlook that combines the wisdom of the past with scientific knowledge to solve the problems of the present.
    A、Problems of the past and present are solved in this book.
    B、In this book, current knowledge and past wisdom are combined to solve current problems.
    C、Only by using knowledge of the past and present can we solve problems.
    D、None of today’s problems can be solved without scientific knowledge.

6、Paraphrase: Choose the choice that best explains the meaning of the original sentence. It would be difficult to overpraise this book.
    A、This is a difficult book.
    B、It is difficult not to overpraise this book.
    C、This book deserves much praise.
    D、It is difficult to praise this book.

7、Paraphrase: Choose the choice that best explains the meaning of the original sentence. When there is an absence of reliable information about drugs, the risks involved in using them are greatly increased.
    A、There is no reliable information about drugs.
    B、There are no risks involved in using drugs if we have reliable information about them.
    C、The risks involved in using drugs have increased.
    D、Using drugs is more dangerous when we don’t know what effects and danger are involved.


1、概要写作 归纳段落大意 Read each paragraph below and then write a restatement of ideas in the original paragraph, or a brief one-sentence summary. Note that restatements give the same information in a different way. (10 points) Paragraph 1 Often people who hold higher positions n a give group overestimate their performance, while people in the lowest levels of the group underestimate theirs. While this may not always be true, it does indicate that often the actual position in the group has much to do with the feeling of personal confidence a person may have. Thus, members who hold higher positions in a group or feel that they have an important part to play in the group will probably have more confidence in their own performance. (3 points) Paragraph 2 Like any theory of importance, that of social or cultural anthropology was the work of many minds and took on many forms. Some, the best known of its proponents, worked on broad areas and attempted to describe and account for the development of human civilization in its totality. Others restricted their efforts to specific aspects of the culture, taking up the evolution of art, or the state, or religion. (3 points) Paragraph 3 There was a time when scholars held that early humans lived in a kind of beneficent anarchy, in which people were granted their rights by their fellows and there was no governing or being governed. Various early writers looked back to this Golden Age but the point of view that humans were originally children of nature is best known to us in the writings of Rousseau, Locke, and Hobbes. These men described the concept of social contract, which they said had put an end to the state of nature in which the earliest humans were supposed to have lived. (4 points)

第二周 思辨性阅读


1、Mark the letter that identifies the tone for each of the following sentences. Baseball was invented as an urban game in order for owners to make money, players to become arrogant, and spectators to drink overpriced beer.

2、The Puritans came to the new land for religious freedom, yet they allowed little freedom to their followers. Anne Hutchinson was banished from the colony for preaching that salvation can come through good works.

3、When I study now, I’m in a lab with 50 noisy computers. What happened to the quiet chair in a corner with a table for your books, papers, and pencils?

4、If given the funding, scientists could trace most aggressive behavior of crime and violence to either too much testosterone or low blood sugar.


1、Annotations are often used to clarify meaning. The exercise below is to give your practice using context clues to understand the meaning of a word. Use your general knowledge along with information from the entire text to write a definition, synonym, or description of the underlined word in the blank provided. Read through the entire passage before making a decision. Note that some of the words appear more than once; by the end of the passage your should have a good idea of their meaning. Do not worry if your definition is not exact; a general idea of the meaning will often allow your to understand the meaning of a written text. People in Americas before Last Ice Age? A site in northeastern Brazil has yielded evidence of the earliest known human occupation in the Americas, approximately 32,000 years ago, according to a report by two French scientists. Although the discovery, reported in June 19 NATURE, does not resolve long-standing archaeological disputes over when and how people first arrived in the New World, the site is much older than others where human occupation has been firmly established. Several such finds in the southwestern United States date to 11,500 years ago, and a rock shelter near Pittsburgh is thought to contain evidence of use by humans 19,000 years ago; previously, the earliest known site occupied by humans in South America was 14,200 years old. --From Reader’s Choice by Baudoin, E.M. et., 1997, p. 95 1) site: __________ 2) occupation: _____________ 3) resolve: __________ 4) disputes: __________ 5) firmly: __________

第七周 提议性写作


1、Read the beginning of a student’s proposal essay and choose the best answer to each question. The Athlete on the Sidelines It’s midseason in cheer nation. This winter, thousands of girls will travel on college all-star teams to take part in competitions across the country. Practicing more than 20 hours a week, they will refine a routine of back flips, hansprings, round-offs and splits—all perfectly synchronized and timed to an Olympic second. Their goal: first place. Their game: competitive cheerleading, one of the fastest-growing sports for women in America. For too many years, cheerleading has been the subject of derision. Sports Illustrated has lampooned it. Many Americans fail to distinguish it from the sideline shows the Dallas Cowboys cheerleaders put on. Back when I was a cheerleader in high school in the late 70s, we were called a sideshow. In those days, we performed at every sporting event—football, basketball and baseball. … What is the purpose of the first paragraph?
    A、To show readers that cheerleading is problematic.
    B、To convince readers that a problem exists.
    C、To persuade readers to take competitive cheerleading seriously.
    D、To tell readers why she became a cheerleader.

2、What does the writer intend to do in the second paragraph?
    A、To show readers that cheerleading is problematic.
    B、To convince readers that a problem exists.
    C、To persuade readers to take competitive cheerleading seriously.
    D、To tell readers why she became a cheerleader.

3、By presenting the current situation and her own experiences, the writer seems _____.
    A、very personal
    B、quite persuasive
    C、less successful
    D、too passionate


1、Answer the following questions: 1) What are the other names for problem-solution essays? 2) When you describe a problem, what should you include in your description? 3) How many major components does a proposal have and what are they?

第十周 英语专业八级写作(资料写作)


1、Fill in the blanks with the words given below. (10 points, 1 point each) response decide understanding focus enable idea new praising challenging summary After you have written your (1) _____, which demonstrates your full (2) _____ of the text, you are ready to write a (3) _____. Because your essay cannot discuss every feature of a text or every (4) _____ the text has evoked, you will want to (5) _____ on a small group of points that (6) _____ you to bring readers a (7) _____, enlarged, or deepened understanding of the text. You may (8) _____ to write a primarily with-the-grain response, (9) _____, building on, or applying the text to a new context, or a primarily against-the-grain response, (10) _____, questioning, and refuting the text.


1、Read the beginning of a student essay and answer the questions that follow. Class, Mobility, and the Lai Family in Three Societies In “Social Mobility in Industrial Society”, Lipset and Bendix describe and explain mobility in social terms and go on to analyze the importance of mobility opportunities to the well-being and stability of a society. They see a balance in every society between the tendency of those who have wealth and power to keep these things for themselves and their relatives and the society's need for new talents, skills, and energy. When power and wealth are held too tightly by closed classes, the society becomes stagnant and those without wealth and power may become so disenchanted that they may pose a revolutionary threat to the social order. My family's experience and my own personal experience in three different societies show exactly the kinds of differences Lipset and Bendix describe, with precisely the political consequences they predict. 1) Which pattern of source-based writing is most probably used in the essay? 2) What ideas do Seymour Martin Lipset and Reinhard Bendix present in the article?

第十二周 作文修改


1、Determine whether each group of words is a sentence or a fragment. If it is a complete sentence, write S on the line. For fragments, write F on the line. 1) _____ Eating less to lose weight. 2) _____ The teacher helping me to do better. 3) _____ To join the most important club in the school. 4) _____ Searching students in school constitutes an illegal search. 5) _____ When taking a test that you need to pass. 6) _____ After brainstorming and identifying topics. 7) _____ Because she was a dedicated student. 8) _____ I enjoy reading good books. 9) _____ Her diet not very healthy. 10) _____ As you enter the building and find your classroom.


1、Read the following paragraph, identify its main idea, and then answer the questions about the revision of the main idea. According to Rachel Jones, Assistant Director of Housing Service, the initial purchase and installation of carpeting would cost $300 per room. Considering the number of rooms in the three residence halls, carpeting amounts to a substantial investment. Additionally, once the carpets are installed, the university would need to maintain them through the purchase of more vacuum cleaners and shampoo machines. This money would be better spent on other dorm improvements that would benefit more residents, such as expanded kitchen facilities and improved recreational space. Thus carpets would be too expensive. --The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing by Ramage, Bean & Johnson, 2009, p. 528 1) Where is the topic sentence of this paragraph? 2) For revision, where should it be put in the paragraph?

第九周 评论性写作


1、Answer the following questions: 1) What should we include in the introductive paragraph of a critical review? 2) What kinds of evidence can be used to support your review? 3) What are the general criteria we use in reviewing an article or paper?