Lesson 1 Critical Thinking and Critical Writing

Section 3 What Is Critical Writing?随堂测验

1、Which of the following types of writing are critical essays?
    A、A movie review
    B、A news report
    C、An editorial
    D、A summary of a book

2、One characteristic of critical essays is: A critical essay must present a clear point of view.

3、One characteristic of critical essays is: They must use real-life examples.

4、One characteristic of critical essays is: Their purpose of writing is to criticize or challenge a commonly-accepted opinion.

5、One characteristic of critical essays is: The essay should justify the author’s opinion with reasons and evidence.

6、One characteristic of critical essays is: They weigh up conflicting ideas.

Language workshop: Word Choice随堂测验

1、Revise the following sentence by changing the underlined part. I feel I have messed up my chances of becoming a great singer. I feel I have ___________ my chances of becoming a great singer.

2、Revise the following sentence by changing the underlined part. After that 5-mile run I was completely wiped out. After that 5-mile run I was completely _________.

3、Revise the following sentence by changing the underlined part. I am so psyched about my vacation! I am so _________ about my vacation!

4、Revise the following sentence by changing the underlined part. (答案请不要用缩写形式) It goes without saying that you will be paid for the extra hours you work. _____________ that you will be paid for the extra hours you work.

Lesson 1 单元测验

1、Which of the following is an example of critical thinking?
    A、You tell a friend the contents of this MOOC.
    B、Bill obeys the orders of the officer during the military training (军训).
    C、Lisa tosses a coin to decide whether she should choose to work in Beijing or Shanghai.
    D、Mary shops online according to the ratings.

2、What is the main point of view of this passage? Why do so many women seem obsessed with their weight and body shape? Are they really that unhappy and dissatisfied with themselves? In today’s society, the expectations for women and their bodies are all too evident. Fashion, magazines, talk shows, and “lite” and fat-free food in stores and restaurants are all daily reminders of these expectations. For instance, the latest fashions for women reveal more and more skin: shorts have become shorter, to the point of being scarcely larger than a pair of underpants. These styles are only flattering on the slimmest of bodies, and many women who were previously happy with their bodies may emerge from the dressing room after a run-in with these styles and decide that it must be diet time again. It seems that this obsession with the perfect body and a woman’s appearance has grown to monumental heights. Now many people feel that this problem is disappearing. People have begun to assume that women want to be thin because they just want to be “healthy.” But it is ironic. What has happened is that the sickness slips in under the guise of wanting a “healthy” body…
    A、Women should not be obsessed with their weight and body shape.
    B、It’s the social expectations for women and their bodies that make them obsessed with their weight and body shape
    C、Women are really unhappy and dissatisfied with themselves.
    D、Now many people feel that the problem of women paying too much attention to their body shape is disappearing.

3、What conflicting idea does the author consider? Why do so many women seem obsessed with their weight and body shape? Are they really that unhappy and dissatisfied with themselves? In today’s society, the expectations for women and their bodies are all too evident. Fashion, magazines, talk shows, and “lite” and fat-free food in stores and restaurants are all daily reminders of these expectations. For instance, the latest fashions for women reveal more and more skin: shorts have become shorter, to the point of being scarcely larger than a pair of underpants. These styles are only flattering on the slimmest of bodies, and many women who were previously happy with their bodies may emerge from the dressing room after a run-in with these styles and decide that it must be diet time again. It seems that this obsession with the perfect body and a woman’s appearance has grown to monumental heights. Now many people feel that this problem is disappearing. People have begun to assume that women want to be thin because they just want to be “healthy.” But it is ironic. What has happened is that the sickness slips in under the guise of wanting a “healthy” body…
    A、Women want to be thin because they just want to be “healthy.”
    B、Sickness slips in under the guise of wanting a “healthy” body.
    C、The expectations for women and their bodies are all too evident.
    D、None.

4、What reasons or evidence does the author use to support the main point of view in the passage? Why do so many women seem obsessed with their weight and body shape? Are they really that unhappy and dissatisfied with themselves? In today’s society, the expectations for women and their bodies are all too evident. Fashion, magazines, talk shows, and “lite” and fat-free food in stores and restaurants are all daily reminders of these expectations. For instance, the latest fashions for women reveal more and more skin: shorts have become shorter, to the point of being scarcely larger than a pair of underpants. These styles are only flattering on the slimmest of bodies, and many women who were previously happy with their bodies may emerge from the dressing room after a run-in with these styles and decide that it must be diet time again. It seems that this obsession with the perfect body and a woman’s appearance has grown to monumental heights. Now many people feel that this problem is disappearing. People have begun to assume that women want to be thin because they just want to be “healthy.” But it is ironic. What has happened is that the sickness slips in under the guise of wanting a “healthy” body…
    A、Some examples of daily reminders of the expectations.
    B、Some quotations from magazines and talk shows.
    C、The latest fashions for women reveal more and more skin.
    D、Names of the women who went on a diet after reading a fashion magazine.

5、Read the following passage and tell if it is a piece of critical writing. Why do so many women seem obsessed with their weight and body shape? Are they really that unhappy and dissatisfied with themselves? In today’s society, the expectations for women and their bodies are all too evident. Fashion, magazines, talk shows, and “lite” and fat-free food in stores and restaurants are all daily reminders of these expectations. For instance, the latest fashions for women reveal more and more skin: shorts have become shorter, to the point of being scarcely larger than a pair of underpants. These styles are only flattering on the slimmest of bodies, and many women who were previously happy with their bodies may emerge from the dressing room after a run-in with these styles and decide that it must be diet time again. It seems that this obsession with the perfect body and a woman’s appearance has grown to monumental heights. Now many people feel that this problem is disappearing. People have begun to assume that women want to be thin because they just want to be “healthy.” But it is ironic. What has happened is that the sickness slips in under the guise of wanting a “healthy” body…

Lesson 2 Understanding Arguments and Essay Structure

Section 1 What Is an Argument? (I)随堂测验

1、The chickens in the following caricature are making an argument.

2、Student A in the following caricature is making an argument.

Section 2 What Is an Argument? (II)随堂测验

1、This is an argument: Genetic engineering really worries me. I don’t think it should be allowed.

2、This is an argument: Genetic engineering should be curtailed because there hasn’t been sufficient research into what happens when new varieties are created without natural predators to hold them in check.

3、This is an argument: Biscuits can be bad for your teeth. We often eat mid-morning when the effects of breakfast have worn off. Biscuit companies, like other food manufacturers, require their employees to wear hats to hold back their hair for health and safety reasons.

Section 3 What is the structure of critical essays? (An Overview)随堂测验

1、Read the essay, “Working at McDonald’s”. Which paragraph(s) can be considered as the introduction section of the essay?
    A、Paragraph 1.
    B、Paragraphs 1-2.
    C、Paragraphs 1-3.
    D、Paragraphs 1-4.

2、Which paragraphs consist of the body section of the essay, “Working at McDonald’s”?
    A、Paragraphs 2-19.
    B、Paragraphs 3-21.
    C、Paragraphs 4-20.
    D、Paragraphs 5-21.

3、Which paragraphs are the conclusion of the essay, “Working at McDonald’s”?
    A、Paragraph 22.
    B、Paragraphs 21-22.
    C、Paragraphs 20-22.
    D、Paragraphs 19-22.

Section 4 What is the structure of critical essays? (The Introduction Section)随堂测验

1、What are the basic functions of the introduction section of a critical essay?
    A、To introduce the topic.
    B、To state the thesis statement.
    C、To support the thesis with details.
    D、To tell how important the topic is.

Section 5 What is the structure of critical essays? (The Body Section)随堂测验

1、Consider the following essay structure. Which do you think can be the most convincing argument?
    A、Opinions of both sides of an issue are discussed first. Then the author says he supports one side.
    B、The author presents the thesis statement first, and then support it with some examples.
    C、The author presents the thesis statement first, and then support it with three reasons.
    D、The author presents the thesis statement first, and then support it with a hierarchy of reasons and evidence.

Section 6 What is the structure of critical essays? (The Conclusion)随堂测验

1、In the conclusion of an essay the author should always repeat the thesis statement.

2、One function of the essay conclusion is to reemphasize the main thesis of the essay.

3、An essay conclusion serves the same function as those of an essay introduction.

4、The conclusion section of an essay is the only place that the author’s main point of view should be presented.

Language workshop: Effective use of verbs随堂测验

1、Rewrite the following sentence by replacing the be verbs with an action verb. (请用一个英文词作答) I was alive after two brutal battles. I ___________ two brutal battles.

2、Rewrite the following sentence by replacing the be verbs with an action verb. (请用一个英文词作答) This article is a report on the devastating accident. This article ___________ on the devastating accident.

3、Rewrite the following sentence by replacing the be verbs with an action verb. (请用一个英文词作答) James is the inventor of this ingenious machine. James ___________ this ingenious machine.

4、Please change the following sentence into active voice. This novel was bought by Michael as a gift.

5、Please change the following sentence into active voice. The whole town was ruined by the flood.

6、Please change the following sentence into active voice. New polices were released by the government last week.

Lesson2 单元测验

1、Where does the thesis statement of an essay normally appear?
    A、In the introduction section.
    B、In the body section.
    C、In the conclusion section.
    D、I don't know.

2、Which of the following statements are true according to this lesson?
    A、As a writer, I should use an extended argument to support its thesis statement.
    B、In order to persuade my reader, I should avoid mentioning any ideas that go against my own.
    C、Considering conflicting ideas and refuting them can make my essay more convincing.
    D、Repeating the thesis statement in the conclusion is the only way to wind up my essay.

3、This is not an argument: Nanotechnology encompasses a wide range of materials that, because of their small size, exhibit novel chemical or biological properties.

4、This is an argument: In my view, the American people deserve answers, not guesses. I have proposed that we obtain these answers in a responsible and bipartisan manner. –Conyers

5、This is an argument: We brought various kinds of fishes ashore and turned them loose in the meadow, but in all cases they were a disappointment—no legs came. It was strange; we could not understand it. Within a week they had all wandered back to the water, and seemed better satisfied there. We took this as evidence that fish as a rule do not care for the land. –Eve’s Diary, p. 78

6、What are the three essential elements of an argument? (三个要素之间请用英文分号和空格隔开)

7、What are the three essential parts of a critical essay? (三个要素之间请用英文分号和空格隔开)

8、What is the sentence that tells the author’s point of view called? (请用两个词作答。)

Lesson 2 单元作业 A minimal essay outline

1、Make a minimal essay outline for one of the following topics. You may follow the outline template attached and use the sample outline in Section 7 as guidance. 1. Is college education worth it? 2. Will MOOCs replace traditional classroom teaching? 3. Why are people addicted to smart phones? 4. What the future holds for the internet celebrity economy (网红经济)? 5. What role(s) should teachers perform in this information age? 6. Should same-sex marriage be legalized? 请在文本框内直接作答,不要以附件形式提交。

Lesson 3 Writing Theses and Introductions

Section 1 What Is a Thesis?随堂测验

1、This statement is arguable: Dogs make the best pets.

2、This statement is arguable: As a result, more stopping places were set up along motorways to enable drivers to take a break.

3、This statement is arguable: Television has a disastrous impact on children.

4、This statement is arguable: The Pacific is the largest ocean.

5、This statement is arguable: The room is crammed with people.

6、This statement is arguable: Bilingualism and multilingualism confer many benefits.

7、This statement is arguable: Cellphones should be banned from classrooms

8、This statement is arguable: My favorite singer is Lady Gaga.

9、This statement is arguable: Vehicle exhaust gases are the chief cause to smog.

Section 3 What Makes a Thesis Statement? (I)随堂测验

1、Choose from the following topics the one(s) that you think appropriate for an essay.
    A、The quality of education.
    B、The significance of education.
    C、The influence of historical events.
    D、Renaissance’s influence on modern art.

Section 4 What Makes a Thesis Statement? (II)随堂测验

1、In this essay, I want to talk about the crime wave in our country.

2、The “baby boom” generation has changed American society in key ways.

3、Disease has shaped human history.

4、Sport helps alleviate people’s stress.

Section 5 What Makes a Thesis Statement? (III)随堂测验

1、In a thesis statement, the author only need to tell what issue they are going to discuss in the essay.

2、A thesis statement should state clearly the author’s opinion on a certain issue.

3、We should look at the problem of online ride-hailing services (网约车) from both sides—This is a strong position of the author.

Language workshop: Periodic vs loose sentences随堂测验

1、What is the emphasis of the sentence: After shopping at the mall, walking the dogs and washing the car, I finally got to stay in and relax?
    A、Shopping at the mall.
    B、Things I have done.
    C、I finally can relax.
    D、Walking the dogs.

2、What is the emphasis of the sentence: Florida is a great vacation spot for families, with Disney World, Universal Studios, and Sea World?
    A、Florida is a great vacation spot.
    B、Florida is a great vacation spot for families.
    C、Florida has Disney World, Universal Studios, and Sea World.
    D、Florida has great places of interest.

3、This is a periodic sentence: Despite heavy winds and nearly impenetrable ground fog, the plane landed safely.

4、This is a periodic sentence: We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with inherent and inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their powers from the consent of the government.

5、If a writer wants to create an effect of suspense, she would use a periodic sentence.

6、If a writer wants her language to be natural and easily understood, she should use a loose sentence.

Lesson 3 单元测验

1、What are the major functions of the introduction section of a critical essay?
    A、Introducing the topic.
    B、Presenting the thesis.
    C、Supporting the thesis.
    D、Signposting the reader.

2、Which of the following should be considered when you evaluate the thesis statement of a critical essay?
    A、Is it a complete sentence?
    B、Is the issue both narrow & broad?
    C、Is any reasons included?
    D、Is the position clear & debatable?

3、This is a proper thesis statement for a critical essay: Men and women are very different.

4、This is a proper thesis statement for a critical essay: Men and women are often treated differently in the Japanese society.

5、This is a proper thesis statement for a critical essay: Bike-sharing brings about transportation convenience to the public.

6、This is a proper thesis statement for a critical essay: Bike-sharing benefits both the society and the individuals.

7、What are the five steps to take a strong position? (请按顺序填写单个小写动词,并用英文逗号和空格隔开)

Lesson 3 单元作业 Writing an essay introduction

1、Write a complete introduction section for the outline that you’ve worked out in the unit assignment of Lesson Two. Keep in mind the basic elements of an essay introduction and the two essential parts of a thesis statement.

Lesson 7 Evaluating and Improving Arguments

Section 1 Evaluating and Improving Arguments by Principle随堂测验

1、It is dangerous to drive on icy streets. The streets are icy now, so it is dangerous to drive now. (相关选正确,不相关选错误)

2、One has to be 18 years old to get a driver’s license. Today is Larry’s 18th birthday. Therefore, Larry can now buy a car.

3、All children who have been fully immunized (免疫)are protected against some common and life-threatening diseases, such as whooping cough, polio and diphtheria. Therefore, Steven, who has been immunized, is most unlikely to fall sick with these diseases.

4、Most smokers will develop heart disease during their lifetimes. Harry is a heavy smoker, so he will be diagnosed lung cancer sooner or later.

Section 2 Evaluating and Improving Arguments by Definition随堂测验

1、A good definition should avoid ____________.(多选)
    A、Using metaphors.
    B、Only telling what the thing is not.
    C、Failing to tell the essentially unique factor.
    D、Being too broad.

2、The definition provided must be closely relevant to the thesis.

3、Definitions from authoritative (权威的)sources such as books or dictionaries are more reliable than self-made definitions, so we should avoid making an original definition as much as possible.

4、We need to double check any original definition provided by the author himself since some key aspects are likely to miss.

5、Persuasive definition usually alters the real meaning of the term being defined in order to manipulate the readers’ attitude.

Section 3 Evaluating and Improving Generalizations (I)随堂测验

1、Research findings from authoritative sources can ensure the truthfulness of evidence.

2、Personal opinions are as reliable as hard facts known publicly.

3、Many statements can be known to be true or false only by studying the particular field in which the statements are made.

4、Open facts are less convincing than the justified research reports.

Section 4 Evaluating and Improving Generalizations (II)随堂测验

1、Read the following case of hasty generalization and identify the statement that can make the argument more convincing. Sven is visiting the United States on vacation. He goes into a bank to exchange money, and is surprised to find he is the only one in line. That night, he e-mails his family, “Banking is so much faster in America. You can go into any bank and never have to wait in line.”(单选)
    A、Sven should not merely exchange money at the bank, instead, he should do more banking business there.
    B、Sven should go to more banks in the U.S. in order to justify his conclusion.
    C、Sven should visit the U.S. frequently so that he could draw a more persuasive conclusion.
    D、Sven should go to the bank with other people rather than go there alone.

Section 6 Evaluating and Improving Arguments by Analogy随堂测验

1、Which of the following analogical argument is the most convincing?(单选)
    A、This company is like a racehorse. It's run fast and won the race, and now it needs feed and rest for a while.
    B、People who have to have a cup of coffee every morning before they can function have no less a problem than alcoholics (酒鬼)who have to have their alcohols each day to sustain them.
    C、As an educator it is important to weed out problem students early and take care of the problems they present because one bad egg ruins the omelet.
    D、The past five Januarys, the department stores had white sales of towels and linens. This January, they’ll probably have sales on towels and linens, too.

2、Why is the argument less convincing? (多选) We should not blame the media for deteriorating(败坏)moral standards. Newspapers and TV are like weather reporters who report the facts. We do not blame weather reports for telling us that the weather is bad.
    A、Because newspapers and TV have a larger coverage than weather reports.
    B、Because weather reports are merely related to facts while newspapers and TV programs sometimes change even distort facts.
    C、Because weather reports are more timely and accurate than public media.
    D、Because newspapers and TV sometimes probably have an indirect effect on people’s moral standards but weather reports are unlikely to influence viewers’ morality.

Section 7 Evaluating and Revising Causal Reasoning (I)随堂测验

1、Read the following cases of causal reasoning and identify the relationship between the assumed cause and effect in each statement. Zoe wore a black velvet (天鹅绒)costume the day she won her first figure skating (花样滑冰)championship. It’s the lucky dress that made her win. (单选)
    A、Coincidence.
    B、Correlation.
    C、Causation.
    D、None.

2、Every severe recession (经济衰退)follows a Republican Presidency; therefore Republicans are the cause of recessions.(单选)
    A、Coincidence.
    B、Correlation.
    C、Causation.
    D、None.

3、Australia is reliant on commodity exports. Such exports are always at risk of natural disasters and price fluctuations(波动). These risks lead to weakness. Therefore, Australia has a weak economy in global terms.(单选)
    A、Coincidence.
    B、Correlation.
    C、Causation.
    D、None.

4、Children who like violent video games are more likely to show violent behavior. This must be because they are copying the games.(单选)
    A、Coincidence.
    B、Correlation.
    C、Causation.
    D、None.

Section 8 Evaluating and Improving Causal Reasoning (II)随堂测验

1、Read the following passage and identify the problem in the causal reasoning. (单选) Oranges to combat the blues. Researchers have recently revealed that eating two oranges a day can help alleviate depression. Researchers studied 13 patients who had feelings of depression. After three weeks of eating two oranges a day, 9 of the 13 people reported improvement in their condition. The researchers hypothesize (假设)that the citric acid and vitamin C in oranges helps to stimulate serotonin (血清素) production helping to combat depression.
    A、There is no correlation between eating oranges and alleviating depression.
    B、It’s hard to justify the sequence of eating oranges and relieving depression.
    C、Some patients who reported improvement in depression concealed their real physical condition.
    D、Eating oranges is not the only reason for combating depression. There are many other obvious alternative explanations.

Language workshop: Redundancies in English Sentences随堂测验

1、Revise the underlined part of the following sentence. People should try to bring about a change in the state of affairs when in depression. (请用一个英语单词填空,全部小写。)

2、Revise the underlined part of the following sentence. It’s hard for him to have a trust in others. (请用一个英语单词填空,全部小写。)

3、Revise the underlined part of the following sentence. It is my wife who provided assistance to me in my hardest time. (请用一个英语单词填空,全部小写。)

4、Revise the underlined part of the following sentence. Things will just be worse if you keep placing stress on him. (请用一个英语单词填空,全部小写。)

Lesson 7 单元测验

1、Read the following passages and identify the problems in reasoning. I do not allow my dog to run around the neighborhood getting into trouble, so why shouldn’t I enforce an 8 o’clock curfew(宵禁)on my 16-year-old? I am responsible for keeping my daughter safe, as well as responsible for what she might do when she is out. My dog stays in the yard, and I want my daughter to stay in the house. This way, I know exactly what both are doing.
    A、Hasty generalization.
    B、Lack of representativeness.
    C、False analogy.
    D、No error.

2、Background checks and waiting periods for those who wish to purchase guns should be eliminated because they don’t deter(震慑)criminals and because they inconvenience law-abiding citizens. According to the Department of Justice, about 87 percent of violent crimes occur outside the home. That same agency reports that police respond to calls for help within 5 minutes only about 28 percent of the time. Furthermore, a study that analyzed data from all counties in the United States for the period of 1977-1992 found that those allowing their citizens to carry weapons saw a 7.65 percent reduction in murders, a 5.2 percent drop in rapes, and a 2.2 percent decrease in robberies.
    A、Incorrect statistics.
    B、Irrelevant facts.
    C、Insufficient number of evidence.
    D、No error.

3、Before we argue about the truth of creationism, let’s define evolution as, “Faith in a crackpot (愚蠢的) theory that is impossible to prove with certainty.”
    A、Persuasive definition.
    B、Lack of causation.
    C、Insufficient number of evidence.
    D、No error.

4、Some people say that calling people names because of the way they look is offensive. My friend is very overweight and people call him names for being fat. He says he doesn’t mind as he finds horrible things to call back. This shows there is no harm in calling people names as they can just retaliate(报复) if they want to.
    A、False correlation.
    B、Insufficient number of evidence.
    C、Lack of representativeness.
    D、No error.

5、Since 1993, the levels of serious violent crime in the United States have decreased steadily. It is obvious that the heavy focus we place on law enforcement (实施)is no longer necessary. People are becoming civic minded and are choosing to no longer pursue a life of crime. Money spent on law enforcement can now better be spent elsewhere.
    A、Causal oversimplification.
    B、Hasty generalization.
    C、False analogy.
    D、No error.

6、In a complete educational system, development of interpersonal skills should be involved. If we acknowledge this principle, since taking MOOCs is less effective, compared to the interactive traditional classes, in cultivating one’s interpersonal skills, traditional classes are irreplaceable in this sense.
    A、Irrelevant principle.
    B、Hasty generalization.
    C、False principle.
    D、No error.

7、What are the questions you should ask when evaluating arguments by principle?
    A、Is the principle true or commonly accepted?
    B、Is the principle relevant or applicable to the thesis?
    C、Is the principle representative enough?
    D、Is the principle convincing to the reader?

8、What questions do you consider when evaluating arguments by definition?
    A、Is the definition appropriate?
    B、Is the definition authoritative?
    C、Is the definition relevant to the thesis?
    D、Is the definition a persuasive definition?

9、What should be taken into account when you use specific cases to support your generalization?
    A、Are the cases offered representative enough?
    B、Are the cases offered authoritative enough?
    C、Are the cases offered sufficient in number?
    D、Are the cases offered true?

10、What are the key aspects of evaluating analogical arguments?
    A、Are the two cases compared truly similar?
    B、Are the similarities between the two cases relevant to the thesis?
    C、Are there many similarities between the two cases?
    D、Can the similarities between the two cases cover different aspects?

11、What questions do you consider when evaluating casual arguments?
    A、Is the cause and effect correlated?
    B、Does the cause event happen before the effect event?
    C、Is the cause relevant to the effect?
    D、Is there no other factors that lead to the effect?

12、Some people say that calling people names because of the way they look is offensive. My friend is very overweight and people call him names for being fat. He says he doesn’t mind as he finds horrible things to call back. This shows there is no harm in calling people names as they can just retaliate(报复) if they want to.
    A、false correlation
    B、insufficient number of evidence
    C、lack of representativeness
    D、no error

Lesson 4 Reasoning and Paragraph Writing

Section 1 What Is Reasoning?随堂测验

1、Please describe the reasoning process of the following argument by choosing the correct phrases or sentences from those listed below. (请用英文大写字母填写答案,字母之间不需要任何标点符号和空格。答案示例: ABCDEF) We might have trouble parking; it's New Year's Eve, don't forget. The speaker wants to ___________ that ______________________. In order to succeed at this, he ____________ to ____________, and the reason is ______________. This process of providing reasons to make one’s claim sound true is called ________. A-make his statement sound true B-we might have trouble parking C-reasoning D-provides a reason E-convince the listener F-it would be so crowded on New Year’s Eve that it is always difficult to park one’s car.

Section 2 All about Reasons随堂测验

1、Which of the following is not a method to discover reasons for the thesis?(单选)
    A、We can go back to the 5-step Decision Package to look for reasons.
    B、We can use mind maps to find out reasons for a thesis.
    C、We can reflect on how we come to the conclusion/thesis in the first place.
    D、We can copy other people’s opinions.

2、Is the sentence an argument or simply a statement of a cause for an effect? Choose 正确 if you think it is an argument; choose 错误 if you think it a cause for an effect. Denise was late because her alarm clock didn’t work.

3、Denise was late because the class starts at 8 o’clock, and she appeared at 8:20.

4、Denise was late because of some emergency.

Section 3 Oh! Evidence (I)随堂测验

1、Which of the following can be evidence for the thesis “My boss is not a good boss”?(单选)
    A、He is very afraid of taking risks.
    B、Our sales was more than one billion dollars before he came, and is only half of that after his arrival.
    C、He doesn’t know how to manage a company.
    D、None.

2、What materials in the following can serve as evidence to support the thesis “this new teaching method has helped students learn more effectively and efficiently”? (多选)
    A、Statistics showing that it takes less time for the same student to understand the target materials than he previously did of a similar piece of material.
    B、Students’ own testimony.
    C、The causes behind this improvement of efficiency.
    D、A contrast group that shows a student following the old teaching method not doing as well as the tested student.

Section 4 Oh! Evidence (II)随堂测验

1、Which of the following statements is NOT true concerning evidence? (单选)
    A、Evidence can come from direct observation, interview, surveys, first-hand data from experiments, personal experiences, etc.
    B、As long as relevant evidence is presented, the thesis is supported.
    C、Evidence does not speak for itself, the writer has to explain how the evidence supports the thesis.
    D、An expert’s opinion or a common sense idea can also be evidence.

Section 5 Reasoning vs Explaining随堂测验

1、Which of the following can serve as reasoning for the statement “He always arrives earlier than appointed time.”?(单选)
    A、He is raised so.
    B、I’ve kept a record and he is always fifteen minutes earlier.
    C、He hates wasting other people’s time.
    D、We should give him a different time next time so that he can arrive just as we expect.

2、Which of the following can be a thesis and it uses the statement “He always arrives earlier than appointed time.” as a reason?(单选)
    A、He is raised so.
    B、I’ve kept a record and he is always fifteen minutes earlier.
    C、He hates wasting other people’s time.
    D、We should give him a different time next time so that he can arrive just as we expect.

3、Which of the following statements can serve as explanations for the statement “He always arrives earlier than appointed time.”?(多选)
    A、He is raised so.
    B、I’ve kept a record and he is always fifteen minutes earlier.
    C、He hates wasting other people’s time.
    D、We should give him a different time next time so that he can arrive just as we expect.

Section 6 Going into Explanations随堂测验

1、If we want to look for the explanations of something, we can ( ).(多选)
    A、check whether what one said is true
    B、ask why questions several times
    C、ask wh- questions
    D、see what we can do about it

2、Is this act a search for explanation or reasoning? Choose 正确 if it is a search for explanation or 错误 if it is reasoning. Looking for the causes of the situation, “The machine is not running properly.”

3、Telling the manager that the solution you are proposing will fix the problem.

Section 7 Patterns of Reasoning随堂测验

1、Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE?(单选)
    A、In a paragraph with a main thesis, reasons can be justified by evidence and evidence can also be followed by reasons.
    B、In a paragraph, evidence and reasons should be separated clearly.
    C、In the example of “Life on the farm”, reasons and evidence are combined closely to support the thesis.
    D、The thesis would not be justified if it is not supported by reasons and evidence.

2、Read the following paragraph and identify the pattern of reasoning.(单选) Whoever does the cooking has a great deal of work to do, and anything to ease that workload is certainly appreciated. Unfortunately, some of these clever items that claim to save time might actually end up making us waste time. Take, for example, devices made to save time cutting food. A specially designed cutter will slice six pieces of pie at the same time, each piece the same size. Another device cuts an apple in thin slices and removes the core all in one shot. Still another removes the corn from the cob, easily and quickly. Although these devices may save time in the actual cutting, just think of how much time the person lost trying to find the device in the first place and then cleaning it up afterward! The same problem applies to a hand-sized electric drink mixer. It might save the host or hostess some muscle, but not aggravation when he or she finds the batteries are dead and there are none in the house.
    A、Thesis – evidence – reasons
    B、Thesis – reasons – evidence
    C、Thesis – reasons / evidence
    D、Evidence – thesis – reasons

Section 8 Paragraph Writing—Unity随堂测验

1、Read the following paragraph and identify the sentences that are off target and do not support the topic sentence.(单选) (1) I had to face the social traumas of being a teenager. (2) Things that were supposed to be fun, like dates and dances, were actually horrible. (3) On the few occasions when I had a real date, I agonized over everything—my hair, my weight, my pimples. (4) After a date, I would come home, raid the kitchen, and drown my insecurities in a sea of junk food. (5) Dances were also stressful events. (6) My friends and I would sneak a couple of beers just to get up the nerve to walk into the school gym. (7) Now I realize that teenage drinking is dangerous. (8) I read recently that the number-one killer of teenagers is drunk driving. (9) At dances, I never relaxed. (10) It was too important to look exactly right, to act really cool, and to pretend I was having fun.
    A、Sentences 3 and 7
    B、Sentences 4 and 9
    C、Sentences 7 and 8
    D、Sentences 9 and 10

2、The topic sentence should not be put in the middle of a paragraph.

3、Normally, there should be only one main idea in each of the body paragraphs of a critical essay.

4、The paragraph would not be unified without a topic sentence.

5、In some cases, the topic sentence of a paragraph can be regarded as the thesis statement of an argument.

Section 9 Paragraph Writing—Reasoning随堂测验

1、It is not necessary to mention the sources of the evidence in the critical essay.

2、Besides quotation and paraphrasing, other things such as statistics, illustrations or examples can also be served as effective evidence to back up your thesis.

3、Quotations are the most convincing evidence in critical essays.

4、You can use the summary of a book as evidence to support your thesis in a long essay.

Language workshop: Use concrete and specific language随堂测验

1、Complete the sentence with an appropriate hyponym of walk.(单选) Tom was so angry that he ____________ out the room.
    A、bounced
    B、stormed
    C、sneaked
    D、tottered

2、Complete the sentence with an appropriate hyponym of walk.(单选) The police was severely injured and __________ out the room.
    A、staggered
    B、stormed
    C、crawled
    D、slipped

3、Complete the sentence with an appropriate hyponym of walk. (多选) The little boy _______________ out the room.
    A、bounced
    B、skipped
    C、sneaked
    D、slipped

4、Complete the sentence with an appropriate hyponym of walk.(多选) The thief _______________ out the room.
    A、staggered
    B、skipped
    C、sneaked
    D、slipped

5、Complete the sentence with an appropriate hyponym of walk.(多选) The gray-haired old man _______________ out the room.
    A、staggered
    B、stormed
    C、sneaked
    D、tottered

Lesson 4 单元测验

1、Read the following passage. Tell if it is reasoning or explaining. Both the toy mice were the same size and shape so the dog, Misty, was confused. Although one mouse was red and one was blue, Misty was unable to tell which mouse was his toy simply by looking. Like other dogs, he needed to sniff them both, using his sense of smell to tell them apart, because he couldn’t discriminate between different colors.
    A、reasoning
    B、explaining
    C、both
    D、neither

2、Read the following passage. Tell if it is reasoning or explaining. New-born babies may lack the capacity to monitor their own breathing and body-temperature during the first three months of life. Babies who sleep alongside their mothers could benefit from learning to regulate their breathing and sleeping, following the rhythm of the parent. These babies wake more frequently than those who sleep alone. Moreover, mothers who sleep next to their babies are better able to monitor their child for movement during the night. Consequently, it may be safer for new-born babies to sleep with their parents.
    A、reasoning
    B、explaining
    C、both
    D、neither

3、Read the following passage. Tell if it is reasoning or explaining. There were many reasons why the student was an hour late for the seminar. First of all, a pan caught fire, causing a minor disaster in his kitchen. It took twenty minutes to restore order. Then he couldn't find his housekeys. That wasted another ten minutes of his time. Then, just as he closed the door behind him, the postwoman arrived, saying there was a parcel to be signed for. Her pen didn't work which held them up further. Finally, of course, he had to find his keys, which had once more slipped to the bottom of his bag, in order to re-open the door and place the letter on the table.
    A、reasoning
    B、explaining
    C、both
    D、neither

4、Read the following passage. Tell if it is reasoning or explaining. The images of horses, bisons and red deer found in Cresswell Crags, England, bear remarkable similarities to those found in Germany. It is unlikely that two separate cultures would have produced drawing of such similarity if there were not links between them. This suggests that there were greater cultural links between continental Europe and Britain during the Ice Age than was formerly believed.
    A、reasoning
    B、explaining
    C、both
    D、neither

5、Read the following paragraph and identify the problem. Just as history repeats itself, fashions have a tendency to do the same. In the 1960s, for example, women wore miniskirts that came several inches above the knee; some forty years later, the fashion magazines are featuring this same type of dress, and many teenagers are wearing them. The miniskirt has always been for slender women. I wonder if the fashion industry deliberately recycles. Men wore their hair long in the hippie period of the late 1960s and 1970s. Today, some men are again letting their hair grow. Beards, considered“in” during the 1970s, have once again made an appearance.
    A、It is not coherent.
    B、It is not a unified paragraph.
    C、The transitional words are not used appropriately.
    D、It does not follow the proper pattern of reasoning.

6、What materials can be used as evidence?
    A、things happened in the past
    B、what we can see
    C、what is written in the book
    D、what is said by some people

7、A good body paragraph of critical essay should ______.
    A、contain only one main idea
    B、be coherent
    C、have a topic sentence
    D、use reasons and / or evidence to justify its thesis

8、You’d better strike out the sentences which are not relevant to the thesis in a body paragraph.

9、Summary should not be employed as evidence to back up the thesis.

10、Transitional words can be used to help achieve coherence in paragraphs.

11、When integrating evidence into writing, you need to tell the connection between the evidence and the reasons.

Lesson 4 单元作业 Paragraph Writing

1、Write one supporting paragraph (a contributing argument) for the introduction section you worked out in Lesson Three. You could also choose one of the following thesis statements and write a supporting paragraph for it. If necessary, you may also organize your argument into several consecutive paragraphs. 1. Parents are the best teacher. 2. A good man should serve as a volunteer social worker at least once in his life. 3. Faith plays a vital part in fostering one's values. 请在文本框内直接作答,不要以附件形式提交。

Lesson 5 Applying Deductive Arguments to Writing

Section 1 Deductive Arguments随堂测验

1、Which of the following is a deductive argument? (多选)
    A、Anyone who has been caught cheating twice should be flunked. This is the second time you’ve caught her cheating. She should be flunked.
    B、Pit bulls (比特犬)don’t bite because mine doesn’t bite.
    C、Stacy and Justin are on the brink of divorce. They are always fighting.
    D、If she was interested in me, she would have called. She didn’t call. Therefore, she is not interested in me.

Section 2 Inductive Arguments随堂测验

1、In the “School cafeteria or McDonald” example (Both places are open, and you said McDonald had the best beef hamburger.), which of the following further premises makes the argument an inductive one? (单选)
    A、Whenever there are better beef hamburgers, we would go to that place no matter what.
    B、We both like beef hamburgers.
    C、The beef hamburgers in McDonald is the most expensive in town because it is the best.
    D、The doctor advised me to keep away from beef in the recent two weeks.

Section 3 Deductive Arguments vs Inductive Arguments随堂测验

1、Deductive arguments give us clear-cut answers of whether the conclusion is true or false.

2、What is given in the conclusion of deductive arguments is already given in the premise.

3、What is given in the conclusion of inductive arguments is beyond what is given in the premise.

4、We can create new knowledge based on what we already known with inductive reasoning.

Section 4 Deductive Arguments in Writing—Reason by Principle (I)随堂测验

1、One premise of the following argument is “individuals marrying the person of his or her own choice is legal.” Same-sex marriage should be considered legal, because an individual has the right to marry the person of his or her own choice.

2、“Same-sex marriage” is included in “individuals marrying the person of his or her own choice.”

3、Reasoning by principle produces new knowledge beyond the premises.

4、An argument using reasoning by principle has to include at least two premises: the principle is one premise, and the other premise is the evidence showing that the particular case in question fits one part of the principle.

Section 6 Deductive Arguments in Writing—Reason by Definition (I)随堂测验

1、If you want to argue that one classmate of yours is not a good student, and as one premise for your conclusion you will use the statement “he always skips classes for computer games,” which of the following statements could be a proper definition to be used in your argument? (单选)
    A、A bad student is one who doesn’t place study as the number one job of a student’s.
    B、A bad student is one who doesn’t excel in one’s study.
    C、A bad student is one who bullies his classmates.
    D、A bad student is one who teases his teachers.

Section 7 Deductive Arguments in Writing—Reason by Definition (II)随堂测验

1、Please fill in the blanks so that you can make your own definition according to your understanding of the term: A __________ is a male adult who marries your mother and helped your birth. (请用一个英文单词填空)

2、A ___________ is usually an adult who tells important information or knowledge to young people and make them learn. (请用一个英文单词填空)

3、A mother _____ (请用一个词填空) a ____________ (请用一个词填空) who _________________________(请用两个词填空) to me. (以上所有答案,请用小写字母填写,中间用英文分号和空格隔开)

Language workshop: Parallel structure随堂测验

1、Please select the best choice to complete the following sentences. I would rather complete it on my own than . (单选题)
    A、with him
    B、work with him
    C、working with him
    D、none

2、Mary is required to either change her targets or ___________. (单选题)
    A、give up this opportunity
    B、giving up this opportunity
    C、to give up this opportunity
    D、none

3、The students are asked to read the article, write a reflexive journal and . (单选题)
    A、deliver a short speech
    B、giving a short speech
    C、to deliver a short speech
    D、none

4、Tim not only failed the final exam, . (单选题)
    A、but he also forgot to reselect the course
    B、but also forgetting to reselect the course
    C、but also forgot to reselect the course
    D、none

5、The school authority banned the unequal admission requirements on international students, but . (单选题)
    A、not lowering the high tuition fees charged on international students
    B、didn’t lower the high tuition fees charged on international students
    C、they didn’t lower the high tuition fees charged on international students
    D、none

6、Please fill in the blanks with the hints in the brackets to make the sentences complete and parallel. You can either stay up late or to finish the task on time. (get up early)

7、The teacher told them and that they need to gain practical experiences. (study hard)

8、The new plan is in theory, reliable in method, and feasible in practice. (innovation)

9、The manager asked the team to work out a better product by distributing questionnaires, interviewing customers, or . (do experiments)

10、Catherine quitted her job, moved to another city and after breaking up with her ex-boyfriend. (restart a relationship)

Lesson 5 单元测验

1、Which of the following statements are correct?
    A、For deductive arguments, if the premise is true, the thesis is very likely to be true.
    B、Both reasoning by principle and reasoning by definition are deductive reasoning.
    C、Inductive arguments are weak.
    D、Deductive arguments help us learn unknown things.

2、Which logic, inductive or deductive logic, is used by the logic professor in the following conversation? _____________ The employer introduced himself to his new gardener. “I am a professor of logic,” the employer said. “Oh. What’s that?” the gardener asked. “I shall give you a demonstration,” announced the professor. “Do you own a wheelbarrow?” “Yes,” replied the gardener. “Then I infer you are a hard worker,” the professor continued. “And from that fact I infer you have a family. And from that I infer you are conscientious and responsible. And from that I infer you are a conservative. Am I right?” “Wow!” exclaimed the gardener. “That’s right! So that’s logic?” “That’s logic,” preened the professor.
    A、inductive
    B、deductive
    C、-
    D、-

3、Is this argument deductive or inductive? Every successful president of the United States was both diplomatic and decisive. General Dwight D. Eisenhower served in WWII as the Commander of the Allied Armies in Europe and then went on to become a successful U.S. president. Therefore, President Eisenhower was decisive and diplomatic.
    A、inductive
    B、deductive
    C、-
    D、-

4、Which of the following are deductive arguments?
    A、All dogs are mammals. All mammals have kidneys. Therefore all dogs have kidneys.
    B、Since all squares are rectangles, and all rectangles have four sides, all squares have four sides.
    C、All science teachers are smart, since all my physics teachers, chemistry teachers and biology teachers are smart.
    D、The sun is a star; the sun has planets; therefore some stars have planets.

5、Which of the following arguments is an inductive argument?
    A、This cat is black. That cat is black. A third cat is black. Therefore all cats are black.
    B、Wherever there is beef hamburger, he would go. McDonald has beef hamburger today. He would go to McDonald.
    C、Every time I went to that restaurant I got food poisoning. If I go today, I will get food poisoning.
    D、Individuals have legal rights to choose their life partners. Therefore, he is legally allowed to choose the man as his life partner.

6、Read the following definition, and then find out the four parts of a definition. (请从下列选项中选择合适内容,并将答案标号顺次填入空格,请用大写字母填写,并不要用任何标点或空格隔开。答案示例:ABCD) A “liberated woman” is a woman who is able to control her own life, rather than allowing it to be controlled by other people, traditions, or expectations. The term to be defined: ______________________________ Be verb: _______________________________________________ The classification: _____________________________________ The distinguishing feature: ___________________________ A able to control her own life B is C a woman D liberated woman

7、Choose the correct words to fill in the blanks. (答案请全部用小写字母,之间用英文分号和空格隔开) [ possibility; true or false; supports; cannot be; hidden; proves ] The premise of a deductive argument ______ the conclusion, and the premise of an inductive argument _______ the conclusion. Therefore, if the premise of a deductive argument is true, the conclusion _______ false, because the conclusion is already ____ in the premise; if the premise of an inductive argument is true, the conclusion can be __________ , In other words, the premise of an inductive argument only tries to increase the _______ that the conclusion is true.

Lesson 6 Applying Inductive Arguments to Writing

Section 2 Making Generalizations (II)随堂测验

1、Which of the following statement is NOT correct concerning expanded generalizations? (单选题)
    A、The difference between simple generalization and expanded generalization is that simple generalization draws the conclusion directly from concrete evidence, while the final conclusion of an expanded generalization relies on some generalizations which are concluded from concrete evidence.
    B、The argument “Jimmy is a good student. He is smart, hard-working, and respectful to his teachers.” is an expanded generalization, because the premises are generalizations. In order to make this argument convincing, the author has to provide evidence to support the generalizations of Jimmy being smart, hard-working and respectful to his teachers.
    C、The argument “Dogs are bone lovers for the dog I raised was very fond of gnawing bones, and my brother’s dog likes to do that, too.” is an expanded generalization.
    D、The argument “ Working at McDonald’s is bad for your kids, for it undermines school attendance, imparts few useful skills, skews the values of teenagers.” can be an expanded generalization.

Section 4 Reasoning by Analogy (II)随堂测验

1、Which of the following analogical arguments is the weakest? (单选题)
    A、Driving fast is like playing with fire. Therefore, do not drive fast.
    B、Both Cheryl and Denise are classmates who both wear glasses. Cheryl likes the movie The Chronicles of Narnia; Denise must like it too.
    C、Cheryl and Denise are teenage sisters who go to the same school and watch the same TV programs. Cheryl liked the The Chronicles of Narnia. Therefore, Denise will like The Chronicles of Narnia, too.
    D、Bears, as everybody knows, are dangerous. If you get too close, you can lose it all. The same holds true of bear markets. In the presence of a bear market, the thing to do is the same as when in the presence of a real bear: Keep your distance!

Section 7 Lesson Review—Employing Various Reasoning Techniques随堂测验

1、Which of the following are techniques of deductive reasoning?(多选题)
    A、reasoning by principle
    B、making generalizations
    C、reasoning by definition
    D、analogical reasoning

2、Which of the following are techniques of inductive reasoning? (多选题)
    A、reasoning by definition
    B、making generalizations
    C、reasoning by analogy
    D、reasoning by cause and effect

Language workshop: Run-Ons and Commas随堂测验

1、Choose the correct sentence(s) from the set of sentences below. Women who believe abortions should remain legal recently held a rally in Washington. (单选题)
    A、Women who believe abortions should remain legal recently held a rally in Washington. (No commas)
    B、Women, who believe abortions should remain legal recently held a rally in Washington.
    C、Women who believe abortions should remain legal, recently held a rally in Washington.
    D、Women, who believe abortions should remain legal, recently held a rally in Washington.

2、The Mississippi River which is over 2300 miles long is the second-longest river in the United States. (单选题)
    A、The Mississippi River which is over 2300 miles long is the second-longest river in the United States. (No commas)
    B、The Mississippi River, which is over 2300 miles long is the second-longest river in the United States.
    C、The Mississippi River which is over 2300 miles long, is the second-longest river in the United States.
    D、The Mississippi River, which is over 2300 miles long, is the second-longest river in the United States.

3、Ralph Ripley's most popular song "Under the Pine Tree" is one of my favorites. (单选题)
    A、Ralph Ripley's most popular song "Under the Pine Tree" is one of my favorites. (No commas)
    B、Ralph Ripley's most popular song, "Under the Pine Tree" is one of my favorites.
    C、Ralph Ripley's most popular song "Under the Pine Tree," is one of my favorites.
    D、Ralph Ripley's most popular song, "Under the Pine Tree," is one of my favorites.

4、A five-year-old child knows over six thousand words he or she has also learned more than one thousand rules of grammar. (单选题)
    A、A five-year-old child knows over six thousand words, he or she has also learned more than one thousand rules of grammar.
    B、A five-year-old child knows over six thousand words. He or she, has also learned more than one thousand rules of grammar.
    C、A five-year-old child knows over six thousand words. He, or she has also learned more than one thousand rules of grammar.
    D、A five-year-old child knows over six thousand words, and he or she has also learned more than one thousand rules of grammar.

5、Mary has her own unique style of dressing she wore a man’s tuxedo with a red bow tie to her cousin’s wedding. (多选题)
    A、Mary has her own unique style of dressing, she wore a man’s tuxedo with a red bow tie to her cousin’s wedding.
    B、Mary has her own unique style of dressing. She wore a man’s tuxedo with a red bow tie to her cousin’s wedding.
    C、Mary has her own unique style of dressing; she wore a man’s tuxedo with a red bow tie to her cousin’s wedding.
    D、Mary has her own unique style of dressing for she wore a man’s tuxedo with a red bow tie to her cousin’s wedding.

6、Humans have managed to adapt to any environment they can survive in Arctic wastes, tropical jungles, and barren deserts. (多选题)
    A、Humans have managed to adapt to any environment, they can survive in Arctic wastes, tropical jungles, and barren deserts.
    B、Humans have managed to adapt to any environment. They can survive in Arctic wastes, tropical jungles, and barren deserts.
    C、Humans have managed to, adapt to any environment, and they can survive in Arctic wastes, tropical jungles, and barren deserts.
    D、Humans have managed to adapt to any environment, for they can survive in Arctic wastes, tropical jungles, and barren deserts.

Lesson 6 单元测验

1、Which of the following arguments contain a thesis that is absolutely true?
    A、I took a tiny bite of the bread, and it is too salty. The whole loaf of bread must be salty.
    B、When there is south wind, often there will be rain. Now we have the south wind, there will be rain.
    C、Alexander will finish his book by tomorrow afternoon as long as he is an accomplished speed reader. Fortunately for him, he is quite accomplished at speed reading. Therefore, he will get his book finished by tomorrow.
    D、I don’t like Lily. Others don’t like her either.

2、Which of the following arguments use reasoning by analogy?
    A、Driving fast is like playing with fire. Playing fire is dangerous. Therefore, driving fast is dangerous.
    B、Driving fast can cost your life. Therefore, don’t drive fast.
    C、I’ve driven fast for a lot of times, and I am still safe and sound. Driving fast isn’t dangerous.
    D、If one’s driving speed exceeds 150 mph, it is highly possible that he will crash into other cars. Now you’ve driven faster than 150 mph, you are very likely to crash into other cars.

3、Which of the following arguments use reasoning by cause and effect?
    A、Driving fast is like playing with fire. Playing fire is dangerous. Therefore, driving fast is dangerous.
    B、Driving fast can cost your life. Therefore, don’t drive fast.
    C、I’ve driven fast for a lot of times, and I am still safe and sound. Driving fast isn’t dangerous.
    D、If one’s driving speed exceeds 150 mph, it highly possible he will crash into other cars. Now you’ve driven faster than 150 mph, you are very likely to crash into other cars.

4、Which of the following arguments use reasoning by generalization?
    A、I took a tiny bite of the bread, and it is too salty. The whole loaf of bread must be salty.
    B、When there is south wind, often there will be rain. Now we have the south wind, there will be rain.
    C、Alexander will finish his book by tomorrow afternoon as long as he is an accomplished speed reader. Fortunately for him, he is quite accomplished at speed reading. Therefore, he will get his book finished by tomorrow.
    D、I don’t like Jane. Others probably feel the same.

5、Which of the following statements are pure analogy rather than an argument using reasoning by analogy?
    A、Life is a roll of toilet paper. The closer you get to the end, the faster it goes.
    B、A book is like a mirror.
    C、She is no good at tennis. No way she’s good at racquetball (回力网球).
    D、Warren shows up to work on time. I bet he pays his rent on time.

6、If you’ve already known the following cause-effect relationship, which proposal can be made based on this knowledge? The cause-effect relationship: Depression is mostly caused by too much pressure and a lack of sleep.
    A、Sleeplessness causes depression.
    B、To avoid depression, one should sleep well.
    C、To avoid depression, one should learn to arrange his life well to avoid an overload of pressure.
    D、Depression causes pressure.

7、When we make generalizations, we state our belief about a group of people based on our observation of specific cases.

8、The conclusion of a generalization is always true.

9、An expanded generalization uses only generalizations as its premises.

10、Generalizations can be used in generating new knowledge.

Lesson 6 First draft of your essay

1、Write a complete essay on the topic you've been working on since Lesson 3, topic of the introduction paragraph in Lesson 3 and the supporting paragraph in Lesson 4. 请在文本框内直接作答,不要以附件形式提交。

Lesson 8 Writing Counter-Arguments and Essay Conclusions

Section 1 What Is a Counter-Argument?随堂测验

1、Why is it necessary to respond to (a) counter-argument(s) in a critical essay?(单选)
    A、To add a new position to your essay
    B、To criticize the opposing point of view
    C、To make your own argument more convincing
    D、To give an objective impression on your readers

2、The thesis is “The push for learning English has become increasingly counter-productive, and may negatively impact students’ ability to learn English meaningfully.” Which of the following sentences can be regarded as a conflicting argument of the claim above?(单选)
    A、Parents believe that their children are learning English, when in fact, they are merely learning facts about English.
    B、Some might claim that this kind of focus on studying English will enable students to succeed in college and in their careers.
    C、A number of observational examples show that middle and high school children who have learned English in a mechanical, rote-based manner are unable to use their knowledge outside the classroom when they encounter foreigners.
    D、No meaningful correlation can be found between test scores with the increasing financial resources or study times devoted to studying English.

Section 2 Writing Counter-Arguments in Critical Essays (I)随堂测验

1、The conflicting argument is usually placed at the very beginning of a counter-argument paragraph.

2、After introducing the conflicting argument, you’d better proceed to support your own thesis as soon as possible.

3、You shouldn’t leave the conflicting argument alone. Instead, you need to refute it with sound reasoning immediately.

Section 3 Writing Counter-Arguments in Critical Essays (II)随堂测验

1、You should not state the conflicting argument too extendedly to outperform your own thesis.

2、Signal words are usually used to introduce conflicting arguments for the sake of being distinguished from your own thesis.

3、It is not necessary to state the conflicting arguments forcefully because they go against your own thesis.

4、It’s not your business to point out the problem of the conflicting argument because readers can identify it easily.

5、Signal words are also important to help you to remind the readers of your refutation.

6、In order not to disgrace those who put forward opposite idea, you’d better refute it indirectly and politely.

Section 4 How to Rebut Conflicting Arguments(I)随堂测验

1、How can you evaluate and identify the problem of a counterargument?(单选)
    A、Identify the type of the argument and consider the evaluation questions accordingly.
    B、Read the argument and see if the premises are true.
    C、Identify the premises of the argument and evaluate their validity.
    D、Read the argument and identify the evaluation questions.

2、Read the following arguments and identify the problems in reasoning. 1. Vitamin C really works. Every member of my family used to have at least one winter cold every year. Last fall each of us started taking one thousand milligrams of vitamin C a day, and there hasn’t been even a sniffle at our house in more than nine months. (单选)
    A、Mistaking coincidence for causal relationship.
    B、Generalization from insufficient number of evidence.
    C、Faulty analogical argument
    D、Irrelevant evidence

3、One expert contends that we need marine parks for scientific research. She argues that much of our knowledge of marine mammals comes from studies which were undertaken at marine parks. The knowledge which is obtained at marine parks, so this argument goes, can be useful for planning for the conservation of marine mammal species.(单选)
    A、Lack of representativeness
    B、Irrelevant evidence
    C、Faulty causal reasoning
    D、Hasty generalization

Section 5 How to Rebut Conflicting Arguments(II)随堂测验

1、It’s easier to find some problens in a deductive argument than in an inductive one.

2、The thesis in an inductive arugment is not always true, so you may have more chances to refute it.

3、It is impossible to rebut an analogical argument if it has satisfied all the criteria, such as truthfulness, relevance, sufficiency and representativeness etc.

Section 6 Writing Essay Conclusions随堂测验

1、What can a writer do in theconclusion of a critical essay?(多选)
    A、Call for action.
    B、Put forward a new debatable idea.
    C、Re-emphasize the thesis.
    D、Predict positive changes.

2、The main premise of an essay is that the government should spend more money on childcare places for the children of parents who study or work. The following sentences are supposed to comprise a conclusion for the essay. Put them into the correct order. a. If we fail to meet our obligations in this area, we will be sacrificing our present and future well-being merely in order to appease out-dated notions of family life and to achieve short-term financial savings. b. In conclusion, it is essential that we support the nation’s parents and children by funding more childcare places. c. Only in this way can we provide the valuable learning environments that young Australians need while, at the same time, utilizing the skills of all productive members of our society. d. The entire national community will then be enriched economically, socially and culturally. The correct order of the sentences is _______________________________________. (请将答案以小写字母形式填写,中间不需任何空格或标点符号。答案示例:abcd)

Lesson 8 单元测验

1、Read the following essay carefully and complete the exercises. Students, Take Note! (1) A walk across campus this week will reveal students, professors, and administrators arguing about class notes like never before. But they’re not engaged in intellectual debates over chemical formulas or literary images. They’re fighting over the taking of the notes themselves, as professional note-taking services in town are applying for permission to sit in on large lecture courses and then sell their notes to the students in those classes. Although the prospect of having “canned” notes looks tempting to many students, our administration should nevertheless ban these services from campus. Not only do such businesses give certain students unfair advantages and discourage class attendance, but they also prohibit the development of students’ important learning skills, despite the services’ claims to the contrary. (2) What is bothered for many of us about the professional-notes option is our sense of fair play. Let’s face it: like it or not, school is, among other things, a place of competition, as students vie for the best academic records to send to prospective employers, graduate and professional schools, and in some cases, paying parents. In today’s classes, all students have an equal opportunity to come to class, take notes, study, and pass or fail on their own merits. But the expensive professional notes, already organized and outlined, may give those with plenty of money some advantages that poorer students—those on scholarships or with families, for example—just can’t afford. In addition, the notes may be available only to those students who take certain sections of a course and not others, thus giving some students an extra option. The same is true for students who satisfy a requirement by taking one course that has notes available rather than another that has not. Knowing that you’re doing your own work may make you feel morally superior to a classmate who isn’t, but frankly, on some other level, it just plain feels irritating and unfair, sort of like watching your roommate getting away with plagiarizing his paper for a class after you spent weeks researching yours. (3) In addition to being a potential source of conflict among students, the professional-note services aren’t winning many friends among the faculty, either. Several instructors have complained that the availability of notes will encourage many students, especially the weaker ones, to cut classes, assuming that they have all the material necessary for understanding the lecture, discussion, or lab. But anyone who has ever had to use borrowed notes knows something vital is not there. Someone else’s interpretation of the information is often hard or impossible to follow, especially if you must understand complex relationships and problems. Moreover, skipping class may mean missed opportunities for students to ask questions or to participate in experiments or in group discussions, all of which often help clarify concepts under study. Not seeing visual aids or diagrams in person can also result in problems understanding the material. And, last, missing class can mean failure to become comfortably acquainted with the teacher, which, in turn, may discourage a student from asking for individual help when it’s needed. All these possibilities are real; even Jeff Allridge, owner of the Quotable Notes service, has admitted to a campus reporter, “There is an incentive to skip class.” (4) Despite the admission that professional note-taking encourages class-cutting, the services still promote themselves by claiming that students using their notes learn more. They support this claim by arguing that their notes offer students clearly organized information and, according to one advertising brochure, “good models” for students to follow in other classes. But such arguments miss the larger point: students should be learning how to develop their own note-taking, organizing, and thinking skills rather than swallowing the material whole as neatly packaged and delivered. Memorizing class material as outlined can be important, but it’s not really as valuable in the long run as learning how to think about the material and use it to solve problems or come up with new ideas later. Taking your own notes teaches you how to listen and how to spot the important concepts; organizing your own notes teaches you how to pull ideas together in a logical way, all skills students will need in other classes, on jobs, and in life in general. Having memorized the outlines but not really mastered the thinking skills won’t help the medical student whose patient’s symptoms vary from the textbook description or the engineer whose airplane wings suddenly fail the stress test for no apparent reason. (5) By appealing to students who believe professional notes will help them accomplish their educational goals easier and quicker, a variety of note-taking services now have franchises across the country. But our campus shouldn’t allow them to move in. Students need to recognize that the difference between the services’ definition of “learning” and the real learning experiences college can provide is of notable importance. Which of the following statements is a counter-argument to the author's argument?
    A、Although the prospect of having “canned” notes looks tempting to many students, our administration should nevertheless ban these services from campus.
    B、Services penalize some students—those who haven’t enough money or take other sections or enroll in classes without lectures.
    C、Services encourage cutting class so students miss opportunities to ask questions, participate in discussion, talk to instructor, see visual aids, etc.
    D、Despite the admission that professional note-taking encourages class-cutting, the services still promote themselves by claiming that students using their notes learn more.

2、Among the following sentences, which is employed by the author to refute the counter-argument above?
    A、The notes may be available only to those students who take certain sections of a course and not others, thus giving some students an extra option.
    B、Students should be learning how to develop their own note-taking, organizing, and thinking skills rather than swallowing the material whole as neatly packaged and delivered.
    C、Skipping class may mean missed opportunities for students to ask questions or to participate in experiments or in group discussions, all of which often help clarify concepts under study.
    D、Not only do such businesses give certain students unfair advantages and discourage class attendance, but they also prohibit the development of students’ important learning skills, despite the services’ claims to the contrary.

3、Please identify the type of thesis used by the author in the conclusion to re-emphasized the main thesis (“But our campus shouldn’t allow them to move in. Students need to recognize that the difference between the services’ definition of “learning” and the real learning experiences college can provide is of notable importance.").
    A、Thesis of fact
    B、Thesis of value
    C、Thesis of cause and effect
    D、Thesis of policy

4、An essay will be more convincing if a new arguable idea is added to the conclusion.

5、Both conflicting arguments and refutation can be easily recognized if certain transitions are properly used.

6、Such transitional words as “however, but, yet…” may remind the readers of refutation.

7、After putting forward a conflicting argument, you’d better move to your own thesis as soon as possible.

Lesson 8 单元作业 My revised essay

1、Read the first draft you produced in Lesson 6. Evaluate the strength of your arguments. Make at least one counter-argument. Revise the essay when necessary. Hand in your revised essay here. (文章请直接黏贴在提交作业的文本框内。与第一稿相较,此次修改稿的修改部分请用蓝色字标出。)

课程考试

期末考试

1、The chief purpose of critical writing is to __________.
    A、inform
    B、convince
    C、entertain
    D、keep record

2、Which of the following sentences is the conflicting argument? ①We really should have more African Americans on the faculty. ②That is why the new diversity program ought to be approved. ③True, it may involve an element of unfairness to whites. ④Yet, the benefit to society of having more black faculty outweigh the disadvantage.
    A、①
    B、②
    C、③
    D、④

3、Read the following passage and identify the type of reasoning. Historically, the market goes up when there is a bad news on unemployment, and the latest statistics show that unemployment is getting worse. This could be a good time to buy stocks.
    A、Reasoning by cause and effect
    B、Reasoning by principle
    C、Reasoning by analogy
    D、Reasoning by definition

4、Which of the following premises best support the thesis? _________ Thesis: You should not force me to pay back the money I borrowed from you last month.
    A、It is not the agreed pay-back time yet.
    B、People who borrowed from me have not paid back my money.
    C、I am bankrupt, I have no money.
    D、You cheated others.

5、Read the following passage and identify the problem of reasoning. Yes, they are saying electric blankets aren’t really a health threat, but I know better. A friend had cancer, and know what? He slept with an electric blanket.
    A、effect taking place before the cause
    B、hasty generalization
    C、false analogy
    D、coincidence rather than correlation

6、Read the following passage and identify the problem of reasoning. Top executives wear expensive clothes and drive nice cars. So, these things must be a key to success.
    A、It is a hasty generalization.
    B、The effect is confused with cause.
    C、The two events are not relevant at all.
    D、It is a false analogy.

7、Evaluate the following argument. Which of the following statements about the argument are true? I’ve seen to at least ten Disney movies in my lifetime, and not one of them has been especially violent. I guess the Disney people just don’t make violent movies.
    A、It is hasty generalization.
    B、The premise is relevant to the thesis.
    C、The evidence is highly representative.
    D、The premise may not be sufficient in number.

8、Evaluate the following argument. Which of the following statements are true? It's about time that we make marijuana an option for people in chronic severe pain. We approve drugs when society reaches a consensus about their value, and there is clearly now a consensus for such approval. A recent survey of public opinion reported that 73 percent thought medical marijuana should be allowed. In addition, the California Association for the Treatment of AIDS Victims supports smoking marijuana as a treatment option for AIDS patients.
    A、The thesis of the argument is “smoking marijuana should be a medical option.”
    B、This is a sound and strong argument.
    C、The premise given is relevant to the issue
    D、There is a mistaken implicit premise in this argument that “when something is popular, it must be good.”

9、The core cognitive skills for critical thinking are judging, inference, and self-regulation.

10、The thesis of a paragraph serves as a premise for the main thesis of a critical essay.

11、This is an argument: What cannot kill you will only make you stronger.

12、The following passage is an argument: Identity theft is up at least tenfold over last year. More people have learned how easy it is to get hold of another’s Social Security numbers, bank account numbers, and such. The local police department reminds everyone to keep close watch on who has access to such information.

13、The following passage is an argument: Genetic screening of embryos is morally wrong. People do not have the right to terminate a potential life just because it might not be the right sex, or may have a defect of some kind. It cannot be said that a person’s quality of life is severely changed by birth defect, or that parents should get to choose the sex of their baby.

14、This is a unified paragraph: I think the popularity of horror films with teens is due to teenagers' desires to test their limits in the real world, to see how far they can go before they get scared and prefer the safety of home, and mom and dad. Horror films allow teens to test their limits in the safety of the movie theater, where they can put themselves in the position of the teenagers in the film without any real danger to themselves. Last week, I went to see the sci-fi/horror film Alien, and got so scared anticipating the alien's attack on the crew that I had to leave the theater. My friends didn't seem as scared, so I felt kind of stupid, but for me, that film was a bit more horrifying than I could take. Children obviously would be too scared at horror films; everything would seem too real, too possible, so that small children could end up with horrifying nightmares.

15、There is evidence in the passage: Some people are born to be homosexual. Recent reports are all supporting this argument. Researchers found that sexual orientation is greatly determined by the sex hormone-testosterone after analyzing nearly 3000 samples. Briefly they found when an embryo is exposed to an abnormal environment of testosterone, the sexual orientation of the embryo is more likely to turn into homosexual.

16、Rewrite the following sentence by replacing the underlined part with a better verb. (请用一个英文词作答) The teacher looked angrily at the students in the class who were talking. The teacher at the students in the class who were talking.

17、Rewrite the following sentence by replacing the underlined part with a better verb. (请用一个英文词作答) They need to make best use of available resources. They need to _______ the use of available resources.

18、Revise the following sentence by changing the underlined part. James gets promoted because of his loyalty, creativity and being efficient. James gets promoted because of his loyalty, creativity and ________________.

19、Revise the following sentence by changing the underlined part. We are looking for a candidate who is not only efficient but also can get along with others. We are looking for a candidate who is not only efficient but also _________________.

期末考试-主观题部分

1、Read the following paragraphs and write an essay of at least 200 words on the issue. You should state clearly your opinion and argue for the position you take. Powered by advances in artificial intelligence, face-recognition systems are spreading widely. Facebook, a social network, uses the technology to label people in uploaded photographs. Modern smart phone can be unlocked with it. Some banks employ it to verify transactions. However, a backlash is brewing. The authorities in several American cities, including San Francisco and Oakland, have forbidden agencies such as the police from using the technology. In Britain, members of parliament have called for a ban on police test. How should we use face-recognition systems properly?