01 Characteristics and Translation Standards of Business English


1、So far this year, 104 manufacturers have failed.

2、Lawyers are accused of failing in their duties to advise clients of their rights.


1、He failed in his attempt to take control of the company. A 他试图掌控公司,但以失败告终。 B 他在试图管理公司的测试中被判定为不及格。

2、Party B is commissioned by the manufacturers to buy steel plates. A. 乙方购买钢板获得制造厂家的佣金。 B. 乙方受制造厂家的委托购买钢板。

02 Choice of Word Meaning


1、I can assure you we’ve spared no effort and spent quite a sum of money in pushing the sales of your products.

2、We are confronted with several formidable tasks, but right now the hardest one is to effect an all-round reform of the price and wage systems.


1、Where extended terms of payment are agreed interest shall be charged from the date of the bill of lading upon the diminishing balance outstanding from time to time. A.支付期限 B.还款条件 C.付款方式

2、The law requires financial institutions to confirm the identity of people opening accounts and those making financial transactions of more than 2 million yen. A.客户 B.账款 C.账户

03 Extension of Word Meaning


1、We gained share in most of our markets, based on the strength of our product line and customer relationships.

2、The application of laser in medicine is still in its infancy.


1、All major banking groups now face the acid test of whether they can regain profitability this fiscal year. A.酸的 B.刻薄的 C.严峻的

2、This law requires financial institutions to confirm the identity of people opening accounts and those making financial transactions of more than 2 million yen. A.要求 B.规定 C.需要

04 Conversion of Part of Speech


1、The Japanese economy continues to underperform due to structural rigidity, excessive regulation, and market-access barriers.
    A、A 日本经济之所以一直表现不佳,是因为经济结构僵固,干预过多,进入市场存在诸多障碍。

2、We have performed the transformation from an old-style telephone company into an application-oriented high-tech group.


1、Stock exchanges in other countries have found different solutions to the problems of providing a continuous and free market in securities, with varying degrees of success. A 关于提供持续而自由的证券市场的问题,其他国家的证券交易所已经找到了不同的解决办法,都获得了程度不等的成功。 B 其他国家的证券交易所,就提供持续而自由的证券市场等各种问题,已经找到不同的解决办法,取得了不同程度的成功。 C 其他国家的证券交易所已经找到了不同的解决办法,在证券业提供持续而自由的市场,都获得了程度不等的成功。 D 关于提供持续而自由的证券市场的问题,其他国家已经找到不同的解决办法,获得的成功也不尽相同。

05 Shift of Perspectives


1、They’ll have to be prepared to wait longer for earnings from this investment.

2、We offer to take ten percent off if your order is big enough.
    C、我们可减少10%的价格, 如果你们的订单足够大。
    D、我方报价减去10%, 只要你们的订单足够大。


1、Inflation is Target of Bank’s New Policy.

2、riot police

06 Amplification


1、Before we make an offer for our new product to our customers, we must understand our product’s market, distribution costs and competition.

2、The innovation of products is one of the reform measures of the SOEs because it can decrease loss, cost and budget.


1、原文:It seems that everywhere you turn, people are using their smart phones in new ways and in new places. 译文A: 现在的情形似乎是,不管走到哪儿, 你都能看到有人在用智能手机,使用方式花样翻新,使用场合层出不穷。 译文B: 现在的情况似乎是,不管你朝哪转向,你都能看到有人在新的地点用新的方式玩他们的智能手机。

08 Repetition


1、The points of contention in the violation of privacy rights have been diverse, ranging from the publication of personal secrets, personal background and love affairs, to the publication of pictures without permission.

2、A product line is a group of products that are closely related because they function in a similar manner, are sold to the same customer groups, are marketed through the same types of outlets, or fall within given price ranges.


1、原文: Ebay’s giant German Web site attracts 17.4 million visitors every month -- up 20% in the past year -- who spend an average of more than two hours a month there browsing and bidding. 译文: A. eBay的大型德国网站每月可吸引1740万访问者比去年增加了20%,每位访问者平均每月在该网站上花费两个小时以上来浏览和参加竞标。 B. eBay巨头德国网站每月可吸引1740万访问者,在去年增加了20%。他们平均一个月在该网站上度过两个小时以上来浏览和竞标。

07 Omission


1、We are surprised to learn that you hold us responsible for the missing package.

2、We would like to draw your attention to this matter because we regard it as determined to our relations.


1、In the event of a breach of any of the provisions of this Agreement by one party, the other party may at its option cancel this Agreement forthwith by giving notice in writing to the defaulting party. A 若一方违反本协议任何条款,另一方可立即书面通知违约方,取消本协议。 B 如果有一方违反本协议的任何条款,另一方有权可以用书面通知违约方并立即取消本协议。

09 Sentence Translation: Comparative Sentence


1、He is more a businessman than a scholar.

2、Swimming is as good a way as any to lose unwanted weight.


1、原文: A statesman should place the interests of the public above everything else. 译文: A. 政治家应该将大众的关注点放在最重要的位置。 B. 政治家应该把公众的利益看得高于一切。

10 Sentence Translation: Passive Voice Sentence


    A、As a person cannot be judged by his appearance, so can the sea not be measured with a bushel.
    B、Each person is the same as the sea which cannot be judged by appearance.
    C、Since a person cannot be judged by his appearance, so can the sea not be measured with a bushel.
    D、Each person is the same as the sea,neither of them can be judged by appearance.

2、Most letters from his clients are read to him by the secretary.


1、原文: 如果采用适当措施,贸易赤字是能够予以控制的。 译文: A. Trade deficits can't be controlled until proper measures are taken. B. Trade deficits can be controlled if proper measures are taken.

11 Sentence Translation: Subordinate Clauses (I)

11.1 Translation of Subordinate Clauses (I): Subject Clause, Object Clause, Predicative Clause, Appositive Clause, Adverbial Clause随堂测验

1、All of the seven major banking groups forecast that bad loan disposal at the end of March next year will be smaller than their net operating profits.

2、Idei’s decision to depart a year ahead of schedule is a sign that the company may be even worse off than previously thought, that his goal of restoring profit margins to 10 % by 2007 is now beyond reach. (Nobuyuki Idei: 出井伸之,索尼集团前任董事会主席和首席执行官)

11.2 Translation of Subordinate Clauses (II): Definite Attributive Clause and Indefinite Attributive Clause随堂测验

1、This was the period when Newton began the research which resulted in the creation of his famous Theory of Gravity.

2、They worked out a new method by which production has now been rapidly increased.

11.3 Translation of Subordinate Clauses (III): Attributive Clause with Adverbial Functions随堂测验

1、North China was hit by an unexpected heavy rain, which caused a severe flooding.

2、To succeed in this area, one needs profound knowledge and experience, which few has.

11.4 Translation of Subordinate Clauses (IV): Split Attributive Clause随堂测验

1、The current fair, the biggest in its history, which was held in that city, has taken on an entirely new look.

2、A fax has come from the New York based headquarters that notifies a 5 percent discount off the original price.

11.5 Translation of Subordinate Clauses (V): Attributive Clause Introduced by “As”随堂测验

1、He did not show up in time, as we had expected.

2、He never curses when angry,as is very natural with us.


1、原文: The workers oil the moving parts of these machines regularly, the friction of which may be greatly reduced. 译文: A.工人们定期给这些机器的转动部分加油,以便大大减少摩擦。 B.工人们定期给这些机器的关节部分上油,这样就有可能大大减少摩擦力。

2、原文: We ought to put this on the agenda, in conclusion, which must be carried out in three weeks. 译文: A. 我们需要把它列入议程作为结论,该议程必须在三周内实行。 B. 总之,我们应当把它列入议程。该议程必须在三周内得到执行。

3、原文: Sophia was not unconscious, as could be judged from her eyes. 译文: A. 索菲亚并不是失去知觉,具体如何要通过她的眼神判断。 B. 索非雅并未失去知觉,这从她的眼神中可以看出来。

12 Passage Translation: Business Letter

12.1 Translation of Business Letter (I): Elements and Characteristics of Business Letter (i)随堂测验

1、If you admit that our company is in error or is willing to take responsibility for the claim, you should write a letter to the customer, expressing apologies and indicating what steps the company is taking to set the matter right.

2、To acquaint you with the products we have available from stock, we are sending you separately by airmail an illustrated catalogue and five sample books at your request.

12.2 Translation of Business Letter (II): Characteristics of Business Letter (ii)随堂测验

1、Our corporation is established for the purpose of carrying on import and export business as well as other activities in connection with foreign trade.

2、Because of their low price and the small profit margin we are working on, we will not be offering any trade discount on this consignment.

12.3 Translation of Business Letter (III): Characteristics of Business Letter (iii)随堂测验

1、We are a professional bamboo products manufacturer with 14 years experiences in China, offering over 1,500 various kinds of bamboo products and monthly output up to 5 millions pieces.

2、Would you like me to make a special sample for your Brazil market?

12.4 Translation of Business Letter (IV): Principles of Translating Business Letter随堂测验

1、Full information as to prices, quality, quantity available and other relative particulars would be appreciated.

2、Please let us have your quotation in USD on the basis of CIF Port Shanghai including our 5% commission.


1、原文: We have pleasure in sending you the samples of the goods listed on your inquiry sheet No. 2080 for your consideration, and hope that they will be of interest to you. 译文: A. 很高兴寄送你方第2080号询价单所列货物样品供你方参考,希望你方感兴趣。 B. 我们很高兴把你方第2080号询价单所列货物样品寄给你来帮助你做决定,希望能引起你方的兴趣。

2、原文: You are not the only importer in Brazil that has asked us about bamboo baskets. I have also received inquires from ABC company, Universal Co Ltd in Brazil. 译文: A. 您并不是巴西唯一向我们询问竹制篮子的进口商,我们也在巴西收到过ABC公司、Universal Co Ltd公司的询问。 B. 您并不是巴西唯一向我们询问过竹篮的进口商,我们也曾收到来自巴西ABC、Universal等进口商的询价。

3、原文:The decision made by the Arbitration Commission shall be regarded as final and binding on both parties. 译文: A. 仲裁委员会做的决定应视为最终结果,对双方都有效果。 B. 仲裁委员会所作的决定应视为终局决定,对双方都有约束力。

14 Passage Translation: Business Contract

14.1 Terms Used in Contract English and the Translation (i)随堂测验

1、This agreement or any part of this agreement shall not be assigned or transferred by either party without the prior written consent of the other party.

2、If the quantity of the goods does not conform to that stipulated in the contract, the importer will refuse to accept the goods.

14.2 Terms Used in Contract English and the Translation (ii)随堂测验

1、No party shall have the right to withdraw his capital contributions or demand or receive the return of his capital contributions or any part thereof , except as otherwise provided in this Agreement.

2、The investors do hereby form a joint venture pursuant to the laws of the State of New York in order for the Venture to carry on the purposes for which provisions are made herein.

14.3 Syntactic Features of Contract English and the Sentence Translation随堂测验

1、If any change is required regarding the terms and conditions of this agreement, then both parties shall negotiate in order to find a suitable solution, provided, however, that any change of this agreement shall be subject to the approval by the government of both parties.

2、Within 10 days of receipt of the shipment, Distributor shall notify Supplier in writing of any shortages, defects or damage which Distributor claims existed at the time of delivery.

14.4 Translation Principles of Business Contract随堂测验

1、Party A shall pay to Party B five (5) percent of the total price for work, i.e., sixty-three thousand (63,000.00) U.S. dollars only at the commencement of construction work on Party A's plant.
    B、甲方在建厂工程开始时应付给乙方工程总价的百分之五(5%),即美元六万三千元整(US$ 63,000)。

2、After friendly consultations conducted in accordance with the principles of equality and mutual benefit, the Parties have agreed to enter into a distributorship relationship in accordance with the applicable laws and the provisions of this Contract.


1、原文: Subject to special provisions explicitly provided for in this Agreement, if either party has been prevented from performing its obligations under the Agreement because of an event of force majeure the party so prevented shall notify the other party in writing within eight (8) days after the occurrence of such event of force majeure, act to mitigate damages, if possible. 译文: A.双方受本合同明确规定的专门条款的约束,如果任何一方因不可抗力的力量而无法履行本合同规定的义务时,受妨碍的一方应在这类不可抗力事件发生后的八(8)天内书面通知另一方,设法减轻损失。 B.在不违反本协议明确规定的特殊规定的前提下,如果由于不可抗力事件而导致一方无法履行本协议项下的义务,则被阻止的一方应在交易发生后八(8)天内以书面形式通知另一方。 如果发生此类不可抗力事件,请尽可能减轻损失。

2、原文: All disputes in connection with this contract or the execution thereof shall be amicably settled through negotiations. In case no settlement can be reached between the two parties, the cases under dispute shall be submitted for arbitration, which shall be held in a third country agreed by both parties. The arbitral award shall be taken as final and binding upon both parties. The arbitration fees shall be borne by the losing party. 译文: A.凡因与本合同或执行本合同时所发生的一切争议,应由双方通过友好协商加以解决;如协商不能得到解决,应交由仲裁。仲裁应在双方接受的第三国中进行,其裁决为最终裁决且对双方都有约束力。仲裁费用应由败诉方承担。 B.凡因执行本合同所发生或与本合同有关的一切争议,应由双方通过友好协商加以解决;如协商不能得到解决,应将争议提交仲裁。仲裁应在双方同意的第三国进行,其裁决应对双方具有最终约束力。仲裁费应由败诉方承担。

13 Passage Translation: Business Advertisement

13.1 The Elements of Business Advertisement and the Means to Achieve the Purpose of Promoting Products随堂测验

1、Different countries. Different languages. Different customs. One level of comfort worldwide.(航空公司广告)

2、Tasting is believing. (美食广告)

13.2 The Genre of Business Advertisement and its Translation Methods随堂测验

1、My Rolex is more than just a watch, it makes me feel dressed.

2、Whoever you are, whatever you do, wherever you may be, when you think of refreshment, think of ice-cold Coca-Cola.


1、原文: Our philosophy is simple. To give you the most important things you want when you travel: the best standards and the special attention a businessman needs. (旅游公司广告) 译文: A. 我们的宗旨——让您在旅行中得到最想拥有的一切:最好的位置、最高的标准、最特别的服务。 B. 我们的精神目标就是让您在旅行中得到最想拥有的一切:最高的标准、最特别的服务和作为商人最需要的特别关心。

2、原文: Step into our homes and you’ll step into a world of space and light. 译文: A. 踏进了我们的家园,就踏进了满世界的光线与空间。 B. 踏进我们家你就等于踏进了光线与空间的世界。

15 Passage Translation: Letter of Credit

15.1 The Definition of Letter of Credit随堂测验

1、The L/C value may include port congestion surcharges, but they must be shown separately on the invoice, and the documentary evidence must be issued by the shipping company.
    D、L / C价值可能包括港口拥堵费,但必须在发票上单独显示,并且凭证必须由运输公司出具。

2、Drawee bank’s discount or interest charges and acceptance commissions are for account of applicant and beneficiary is to receive price value for the term draft as if drawn at sight.

15.2 Language Features of Letter of Credit and the Translation随堂测验

1、1. The certificate of inspection would be issued and signed by authorized applicant of L/C before shipment of cargo, whose signature is subject to our final confirmation.


1、原文: We hereby agree with the drawers, endorsers and bona-fide holders of the drafts drawn under and in compliance with the terms of this credit that such drafts shall be dully honored on due presentation and delivery of documents as herein specified. 译文: A.凡根据本信用证并按其所列条款而开具的汇票向我行提示并交出本证规定的单据者,我行同意对其出票人、背书人及善意持有人履行付款义务。 B. 我行由此同意向符合本信用证条款之汇票的出票人、背书人和善意持有人予以见票承付。

2、原文: We hereby engage that all drafts drawn under and documents presented hereunder will be duly honored by us provided that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with. 译文: A.我行保证凭符合本信用证之汇票及单据付款。 B.我们特此承诺,只要遵守信用证的条款和条件,我们将适当地兑现所有根据本协议开出的汇票和提供的文件。

16 Chinese-English Business Translation

16.1 Causes and Expressions of Chinglish in Chinese-English Business Translation随堂测验

    A、The financial statements have been ready according to United States’ generally accepted accounting principles.
    B、The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States’ generally accepted accounting principles.
    C、The accounting statements have been compiled in accordance with United States’ generally recognized accounting standards.
    D、The accounting statements have been made based on United States’ generally recognized accounting principles.

    A、This agreement shall be subject to and construed and enforced in accordance with the laws of England.
    B、This contract must be governed by and construed in accordance with English law.
    C、This deed must be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the laws of England.
    D、This contract must be governed by English law and interpreted and enforced in accordance with English law.

16.2 Ways to Avoid Chinglish in Chinese-English Business Translation随堂测验

    A、The packing method is normally chosen by the seller, but the packing shall be strong enough to withstand the hazards of ocean transportation.
    B、As for the packing method, normally the buyer does not make the choice, but the packing shall be strong enough to withstand the hazards of ocean transportation.
    C、As for packing, buyers usually have no choice, but the packing must be strong enough to withstand all the dangers of sea transportation.
    D、As for the packaging method, the buyer usually does not choose, but the packaging must be strong and able to withstand the dangers in the sea transportation process.

    A、At the turn of the century, China's diplomacy is most active.
    B、The turn of the century finds China most active on the diplomatic arena.
    C、At the turn of the century, China's diplomacy has never been more active.
    D、At the turn of the century, China's diplomacy was unprecedentedly active.


1、原文: 为了推动中美关系的发展,中国需要进一步了解美国,美国也需要进一步了解中国。 译文: A.To promote China-US relations, China needs to know the US better and vice versa. B.To promote the development of China-US relations, China needs to know the US better and the US also needs to know China better.

2、原文: 我行由此与贵行确定:所有符合本信用证条款的汇票均予以见票承付。 译文: A.We hereby affirm to you that all drafts drawn under and in compliance with the terms of this credit shall be duly honored upon presentation. B.We hereby have confirmed with your bank that all bills of exchange that meet the terms of this letter of credit will be accepted by sight.



1、1. Under the zero-interest rate policy, the Bank of Japan ensures an ample supply of funds to the money market, making it easier for many banks to _____ funds there.

2、2. Steps are being taken to _____ the accident frequency rate.
    B、cut down
    C、spur up

3、3. The main _____ of the company are manufacturing computer components and direct retailing to consumers.

4、4. Developing a completely new aircraft begins with the design of a new airframe and requires huge outlays for _____ , development , and tooling.

5、5. Please give us a definite reply at your earliest _______.

6、6. China ______ serious inflation in five consecutive years from 1992 to 1996 , after which the CPI maintained at stable level for 10 years.

7、7. All major banking groups now face the acid test of whether they can regain profitability this _____ year.

8、8. The company failed after it was sued by music and film industries for copyright piracy and its investors _____ their support .

9、9. My parents will be _______ if I failed the examination again. A. despaired B.disappeared C.vanished D.relaxed

10、10. University researchers are expected to______ their own start-up businesses to trigger Industrial revitalization
    A、shut down

11、以下为多选题,每题至少有两个正确选项。11-15题请选出正确的译文,16-20题请选出错误的译文。 11. The finished products must be carefully inspected before delivery.

12、12. Step into our homes and you’ll step into a place of space and light.

13、13. We take no pride and prejudice.

14、14. Partial shipment allowed.

15、15. The whole process of market selection is rather like a prospector’s search for gold.

16、(以下五题请选出错误的译文) 16. Never use insect repellents on wounds or irritated skin.

17、17. An order has come from Berlin that no language but German may be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. (请选出错误的译文)

18、18. There are times during a negotiation when one of the parties will suddenly leave the table and then the talks will collapse. (请选出错误的译文)

19、19. All is not gold that glitters. (请选出错误的译文

20、20. She did not, as her family had feared, go to see the stranger alone. (请选出错误的译文)

21、请判断译文优劣,选择更为恰当的译文。请填入A或B。 21. The Japanese economy continues to underperform due to structural rigidity, excessive regulation, and market-access barriers. A. 日本经济持续不佳的原因为结构性的僵固、过多的干预以及进入市场的障碍。 B.日本经济之所以一直表现不佳,是因为经济结构僵固,干预过多,进入市场存在诸多障碍。

22、22. That opinion is both wrong and dangerous. Even those lenders who never got capital would probably not have survived without government rescues of weaker firms to which they had counterparty exposures . A. 那种观点不仅错误而且很危险。假如没有政府给较为危险的公司的帮助,即使是那些从未得到资金的银行都可能像他们的同行一样无法生存。 B. 那种观点不仅错误而且很危险。假如政府不救助岌岌可危的企业,即使是那些没有得到助资的银行都可能像他们的交易对手一样倒闭。

23、23. Buyers and sellers may be scattered over the whole world and instead of actually meeting together in a marketplace they deal with one another by telephone , cable , email or letter . A. 买方和卖方可能分散在世界各地,他们可以用电话、电缆、电子邮件和信件进行交易,而并不真正在市场上碰头。 B. 买方和卖方可能处在世界各地,他们并不真正在市场上见面,是通过电话、电缆、 电子邮件或信件等方式打交道。

24、24. A foreign business representative, neither overly sympathetic toward China nor overly disposed against it, would need to be convinced on a number of scores before he could responsibly commit his firm to taking an equity position in a Chinese enterprise. A. 一个对中国既无过度好感又过度恶感的企业代表,在代表公司在华投资、与一定中国企业形成平等股权关系之前必须考虑许多因素。 B. 一名外国企业代表,如果对中国既无过分好感,又无过分恶意的话,要动真格地实施对一家中国企业投资入股,往往需要有一系列评估数据来帮助他们做出最终决定。

25、25. To put the economy back on the road to full recovery , further progress in the yen's appreciation and the dollar’s depreciation must be contained A. 要想将经济拉回全面回复的格局,遏制日元进一步升值及美元进一步贬值是必要的。 B. 要想将经济拉回全面恢复的轨道,必须遏制日元的进一步升值和美元的进一步贬值。

26、26. The biotechnology industry is expected to use state-of-the-art life science, including gene modification, in the production of chemicals, medicines and food. A: 生化科技也被期望运用最先进的生命科学,包括基因改造、化学品、药物及食物的生产。 B: 生物技术产业有望在生产化学品、药物和食物等方面,使用最先进的生命科学,包括基因改造。

27、27. The L/C value may include port congestion surcharges , but they must be shown separately on the invoice , and the documentary evidence must be issued by the shipping company. A: 本信用证总金额含港口拥挤附加费,须在发票上另加注明,且书面凭证须由运输公司出具。 B: 本信用证总金额包括交通堵塞费,该笔费用须在发票上单独注明,书面证明须由运输公司出具。

28、28. We hereby engage that all drafts drawn under and documents presented hereunder will be duly honored by us provided that the terms and conditions of the credit are complied with. A: 我行保证凭符合本信用证之汇票及单据汇款。 B: 我们保证,只要遵守信用证的条款和条件,我们将及时承兑根据本信用证开具的汇票和提交的单据。

29、29. International joint ventures are people intensive. It is the people relationships that are the glue that holds them together. Good people relationships between partners are the rudders which steer joint ventures through troubled waters. A:国际合资企业是人力密集型企业。人际关系把他们联系在一起,是为粘合剂。伙伴之间的关系是舵,带领合资企业渡过难关。 B:国际合资企业是人员密集型的。把人员集合在一起的翻合剂,便是人际关系。合资伙伴之间的和谐关系犹如船舵,能引导合资企业穿过惊涛骇浪。

30、30. We wish to introduce ourselves to you as a professional corporation specializing in all kinds of woven garments and are interested in establishing mutually beneficial business relations with you. A:我们乐于向贵方介绍我们自己,我们是专门从事各种编织服装的专业公司,愿与贵方建立互利的业务关系。 B:我方想要向你方做个介绍,我们从事各种编织服装的制造,有兴趣和你建立互利的业务关系。