Chapter 1 Introduction 跨文化传播导读

单元测验

1、What is NOT a reason mentioned in this course for studying intercultural communication? 以下哪一项不是本节课中提到的学习跨文化传播的原因?
    A、To prepare for globalisation. 为迎接全球化作准备。
    B、To reduce tensions and conflicts. 缓和全球紧张局势、减少冲突。
    C、To assert personal and group identities. 强调个性化与单个群体的特点。
    D、To facilitate personal growth. 促进个人成长。

2、Which of the following developments is NOT an example that we are now living in a global village? 以下哪一项不属于我们如今生活在地球村中的表现?
    A、Increasing global mobility, such as migration and tourism, paradoxically consolidate local boundaries. 不断增强的全球流动性(如移民和旅游业),反而增强了本地社群及其居民的的边界感
    B、The developments of mass media and the Internet bring events from across the globe into our homes. 大众媒介的发展——互联网将世界各地的新闻带给我们每一个人
    C、Telecommunication Systems, including e-mail, texting, and social networking sites, connect people throughout the world via satellites and fibre optics. 电信系统的发达——包括电子邮件、短信和社交网络,它们通过卫星系统和纤维光学将世界各地的人联系在一起
    D、The transportation development has made Earth a smaller planet to inhabit. 交通系统的发展将我们居住的地球变成一个更小的地方

3、A healthy community is made up of individuals who: 一个健康的社群成员主要包括以下哪一类人:
    A、Work for the benefit of just their groups. 仅为自己所在群体的利益努力
    B、Try to eliminate their differences with each other. 试图消除和其他群体之间的差异
    C、Compete with each other to show that they are superior to others. 和他人相互竞争以彰显自己的优越之处
    D、Work collectively for the benefit of everyone. 为群体中所有人的利益共同奋斗

4、Which of the following is NOT a benefit of intercultural communication for personal growth? 以下哪一项不属于跨文化交际对于个人成长的益处?
    A、Learn more about the way of life of other people in the world. 了解更多世界上其他国家人群的生活方式
    B、Be able to better empathise with other people. 更能与他人产生共情
    C、Recognise that people from different cultures do not have much in common. 认为来自不同文化背景的人没有什么超越文化差异的共同之处
    D、Develop a tolerance for difference. 包容差异的能力更强

5、Which of the following cases is an example of failed intercultural communication? 以下哪一项是失败的跨文化交际的案例?
    A、Spending a considerable amount of time to learn a second language. 花时间详细学习另一门语言
    B、Lowering your voice volume when speaking with people who speak softly. 和说话语调较温和的人交谈时能够降低自己的音量
    C、Observing the verbal and nonverbal response people give to you in intercultural communication. 在跨文化交际的过程中观察对方传递给你的语言反应和非语言反应
    D、Using the “thumb-up” gesture to communicate the meaning of “good job” in all intercultural context.在所有的跨文化语境中都使用竖起大拇指的手势来表示“做得不错”的意思

6、The term “globalisation”’ originally implied an emerging development, a work in progress, but now can be characterised as both an existing condition and a continuing dynamic. “全球化”一词最初描述一种新的发展模式、一项正在进行的工作,但现在可以被用来形容一种既存的状态,并保持着持续的活力。

7、“Ko-ke-ko-le” (“可口可乐”) is a better Chinese translation of Coca Cola than “Ke-dou-ken-la” (“蝌蚪啃蜡”) because it is more phonetically equivalent to the English brand name than the other translation. 相较于“蝌蚪啃蜡”,“可口可乐”是对“coca cola”的更准确的翻译,这是因为它在音韵上比其他的翻译更贴近该产品的英文品牌名称。

8、International tensions in the world reduce the need for people to find new ways of cooperating and managing intercultural encounters. 世界紧张局势减少了人们寻求合作、寻求跨文化交际新方式的需求。

9、The big challenge we face now is how migrants and locals can work together to promote a genuine and healthy community. 我们现如今面临的巨大挑战是移居者和当地人如何努力共创一个真正健康的社群。

10、Since most skills and knowledge about intercultural communication come from lived experience, they cannot be learned. 既然关于跨文化交际中的大多数技巧和知识来自于现实的实践与体验中,那么它们就是无法被习得的。

11、While intercultural communication often leads to misunderstanding and conflict, it also paves the way to personal, local, and global changes, growth, and innovation. 虽然跨文化交际可能会导致误解和冲突,但它同时也有助于个人、地方以及全球范围内的变革、增长和创新发展。

12、Observing the lives of others helps us understand how we conduct our own lives. 当观察别人的生活时,我们开始了解自己是如何生活的。

Chapter 2 Culture and Communication 文化与传播

单元测验

1、What is culture, according to studies of intercultural communication? 根据跨文化传播研究,什么是文化?
    A、Things in society that are considered classical, supreme, and of high value, such as the fine arts and classical music. 社会中那些被看作是经典的、卓越的、具有较高价值的东西,如高雅艺术和古典音乐
    B、Events in society that bear collective significant, such as festivals, commemorations and sports events. 具有集体意义的社会活动,如节日、纪念仪式和体育竞技赛事等
    C、The place where cultural events take places, such as theatre, national gallery or the street. 文化事件发生的场所,如电影院、国家美术馆或街头
    D、The particular way of life that defines the people who follow it. 独特的生活方式将定义采取这种生活方式的群体

2、Which of the following statements about the sharedness of culture is FALSE? 以下哪一项关于文化共享性的说法是错误的?
    A、That all humans eat, sleep and laugh is a proof for the sharedness of culture. 所有人都需要吃饭、睡觉、大笑是文化共享性的证据
    B、Culture is group-based; it is not an individual property. 文化是基于群体存在的,并非是个人财产
    C、Culture does not determine how individual behave and act. 文化不能决定个人行为和表现
    D、The sharedness of culture enables individuals within a group to predict how other members of their group are likely to behave. 文化共享性让群体内的个人能够预测群体内其他人可能会如何表现

3、Which of the following examples is NOT a cultural symbol? 以下哪一项不属于文化表征的例子?
    A、A lightning bolt that signals the incoming storm. 闪电预示着即将到来的暴风雨
    B、A national flag that symbolises national pride and identity. 象征着国家自豪感和认同感的国旗
    C、A bow people exchange when greeting. 人们相互问候时鞠躬的动作
    D、The formal suit your wear for an interview. 你为一次面试所穿的正装

4、Which of the following behaviours belongs to informal cultural learning? 以下哪一项行为属于非正式文化学习?
    A、Attending primary schools. 上小学
    B、Internship in a securities firm. 在一家证券公司实习
    C、Chat with your grandmother and learn about her life stories. 和你的奶奶交谈,并了解她的人生故事
    D、Visiting museums and galleries. 参观博物馆和美术馆

5、Which of the following cases is NOT an example of cultural diffusion? 以下哪一项不是文化传播的案例?
    A、The reproduction of Western hospital and medical systems in non-Western nations. 非西方国家中西式医院及其医疗系统
    B、The invention of the electric bulb by Thomas Edison. 托马斯·爱迪生的电灯泡的发明
    C、Islamic expansions in the Early Middle Ages. 中世纪早期伊斯兰帝国的扩张
    D、The spread of Chinese paper and gunpowder to Western Europe. 中国的纸张和火药向西欧传播

6、Which of the following examples is a social organisation? 以下哪一项是社会组织的例子?
    A、The court 法庭
    B、Marriage 婚姻
    C、The media system 媒介系统
    D、All A, B and C are social organisations. A,B和C都属于社会组织

7、Which of the following is NOT an element of culture? 以下哪一项不是文化的组成要素?
    A、Values 价值观
    B、Language 语言
    C、Human intelligence 人的智力
    D、History 历史

8、Which of the following statements is NOT a function of communication? 以下哪一项不属于传播的功能?
    A、Communication helps fulfil interpersonal needs 传播帮助个人满足其需求
    B、Communication eliminates cultural differences 传播消除文化差异
    C、Communication establishes identities 传播建立起认同感
    D、Communication assists in person perception 传播帮助提高个人感知能力

9、What do we mean by saying that communication is dynamic? “传播过程是动态的”,这句话的意思指的是什么?
    A、Communication is an ongoing process, one message is immediately replaced by another in temporal orders. 传播是一个持续进行的过程,一条消息发出后会按照时间顺序被另一条取代
    B、In communication, we use symbols to represent things we refer to. 在传播过程中,我们使用象征符指代我们想表达的内容
    C、Communication does not occur in a vacuum. The form it takes depends on the situation in which it occurs. 传播行为并非发生在真空中,它所采用的形式取决于它发生时的具体情境
    D、We can think and reflect on our communication. 我们可以思考和反思传播过程

10、Which of the following cases is an example of the habitual consequence of communication? 以下哪一项是传播惯性后果的例子?
    A、You acquire your gender role without noticing where they come from. 你接纳了自己的性别角色,但并不知道这种角色源自哪里
    B、You hear someone saying something. You think about it, without responding outwardly. 你听到有人说了话,你可以思考它,但无需作外在回应
    C、If someone asks you directions to the library, your response may be, “It’s on your right.” 如果有人问你图书馆的方向,你的回答可能是:“它在你的右边。”
    D、The change of your heart rate and skin temperature during the communication. 传播过程中你的心率和皮肤温度的变化

11、When we say that “once you hit the send button, there is no way to retrieve it”, we mean that: 当我们说“一旦你按下发送键,就没有撤回的机会了”这句话,意思是:
    A、Communication is dynamic 传播是持续不断的
    B、Communication is self-reflective 传播是能够自我折射的
    C、Communication is irreversible 传播进程是不可逆的
    D、Communication is symbolic 传播是一种象征行为

12、Which of the following things can serve as intrinsic motivation to the studies of intercultural communication? 以下哪一项是进行跨文化传播研究的内在动因?
    A、Economic benefits 经济利益
    B、Career advancement 职业晋升
    C、Alternative insights about people and the world 关于人类和世界的另一种视角
    D、Broader interpersonal network 更广阔的的个人社交网络

13、What is a cultural general approach to the studies of intercultural communication? 什么是跨文化传播研究的一般方法?
    A、You learn the universal influences of culture on human behaviours. 你可以习得文化对于人类行为的普遍影响
    B、You study one culture at a time. 你可以一次性学习一种文化
    C、You pay attention to all the elements and aspects of the culture/cultures you learn. 你会关注你所学习的所有文化的全部要素和方方面面
    D、You focus on the “deep structure” of culture in your learning. 你关注于你正在学习的文化的深层次结构

14、What intercultural skills we are talking about when we say that one needs to “dance to the tune that is played”? 当我们说一个人应该“随着节奏起舞”的时候,指的是何种跨文化交流的技巧?
    A、Intercultural listening skill. 跨文化中的倾听技能
    B、Communication flexibility. 沟通的灵活性
    C、Ambiguity tolerance skill. 含糊的、包容的技巧
    D、Nonverbal communication skill. 非语言传播技巧

15、What should you do if you find the other people’s behaviours ambiguous and confusing in intercultural communication? 如果在跨文化交流的过程中你发现其他人的行为是模棱两可的、令你困惑的,你应该怎么做?
    A、Ask people to clarify what they mean by their behaviours every time you find them confusing. 每次你感觉困惑的时候就询问他人,搞清楚他们的行为是什么意思
    B、Ignore what confuses you and go on with your own ways. 忽视这些困惑,继续以自己的方式进行
    C、Try to make sense of their behaviours using your own cultural repertoire. 尝试用自己的文化语库弄明白他人的行为
    D、Suspend your judgement about the behaviours that confuses you, while observing carefully to understand the cultural meaning and mechanisms behind these behaviours. 暂停对让你感到困惑的行为的判断,同时仔细观察以了解这些行为背后的文化含义和机制

16、You cannot learn about your culture without communication. 没有沟通将无法了解自己所处的文化。

17、You can identify the culture difference between people by observing how they use language. 你可以通过观察人们使用语言的方式来识别人与人之间的文化差异。

18、Metropolitan cities have more culture than small towns. 大城市比小城镇具有更多样的文化。

19、Symbols have inherent connections to the things they refer to. 符号与它们所指的事物有着内在的联系。

20、Although most cultures are learned, some elements of culture are innate. 尽管大多数文化是习得的,但文化的某些要素是与生俱来的。

21、In many cases, Religion influences the entire system of culture. 在很多情况下,宗教会影响整个文化体系。

22、Learning to use a language simultaneously involves learning the culture. 学习一种语言涉及学习相应的文化。

23、Introverted persons who find greater pleasure in solitude do not have interpersonal needs. 内向的人往往在独处时感到更加快乐,并没有人际交往的需要。

24、Self-reflection only occurs in special moments of our lives, such as when we meditate, pray or write a diary. 自省只会发生在我们生活中的特殊时刻,例如沉思,祈祷或写日记时。

25、Setting and environment shape the meaning you give to the symbols that you receive. 环境形塑了您对所接受的符号的含义。

26、You are both a participant and an observer the communication you take part. 您沟通交流的同时既是参与者又是观察者。

27、Knowing the world better and considering the possibilities of human lives can be an intrinsic motivation to learn intercultural communication. 更好地了解世界并思考人类生活的可能性可能是学习跨文化交流的一种内在动力。

28、The cultural specific approach is superior to the cultural general approach because there is no universal traits and influences that can be transferred from culture to culture. 坚持文化特殊性的方法优于文化一般性的方法,因为没有可以从一种文化转移到另一种文化的普遍特征和影响。

29、We should tolerate the ambiguity and confusion that usually accompany intercultural communication. 我们应该接受跨文化交流中伴随的模棱两可和令人迷惑之处。

30、You should converse slowly and softly when engaging with people who speak loudly and fast. 与说话大声而快速的人沟通时,你应把语速放轻放缓。

Chapter 3 Cultural Values and Patterns 文化价值与范式

单元测验

1、What is “concept or idea that an individual or a group holds as true” in intercultural communication? 在跨文化交流中,“一个人或一个团体拥有真实的概念或观念”是什么?
    A、Worldview 世界观
    B、Belief 信仰
    C、History 历史
    D、Religion 宗教

2、Which of the following cases does NOT reflect the significance of value in culture? 以下哪个案例中没有反映出文化价值的重要性?
    A、People form social organisations as a means of survival 人们组成社会组织作为生存的手段。
    B、Japan is a large nation for the consumption of whale meat, while eating whale meat is strictly prohibited in Australia. 日本是消费鲸鱼肉的大国,而在澳大利亚则严格禁止食用鲸鱼肉。
    C、You carefully dress up in front of a mirror before attending a ball. 参加舞会之前,您会在镜子前精心打扮。
    D、In China and South Korea, lighter skin is considered a sign of beauty, while suntanned skin connotes a lower social status. 在中国和韩国,较浅的皮肤被认为是美丽的标志,而被晒黑的皮肤则意味着较低的社会地位。

3、Which of the following statements is NOT a feature of cultural pattern? 以下哪个论述不是文化模式的特征?
    A、Cultural patterns are integrated. 文化模式是整合的。
    B、Cultural patterns are dynamic. 文化模式是动态的。
    C、Cultural patterns are coherent and consistent. 文化模式是连贯且一致的。
    D、Cultural patterns do not determine your thoughts and behaviour. 文化模式并不能决定你的想法和行为。

4、For Edward Hall, “cultural context” is: 爱德华·霍尔提出的“文化语境”指的是:
    A、The emotional connection between people when they communicate. 人与人之间交流时的情感联系。
    B、The “essence” or “spirit” of a culture. 一种文化的“本质”或“精神”。
    C、Information that surrounds an event. 围绕事件的信息。
    D、The geographic and socio-economic condition of culture. 文化的地域和社会经济条件。

5、In comparison to that with family members, communication with strangers tend to be: 与家人相比,与陌生人的交流倾向于:
    A、Long-term oriented 长期导向
    B、Low context 低语境
    C、High context 高语境
    D、High power distance 高权力距离

6、People in high-context cultures can correctly decode the meaning of silence because 高语境文化中的人们可以正确地解码沉默的含义,这是因为
    A、Silence has no meaning in high-context communication. 沉默在高语境交流中毫无意义
    B、Silence has an exact meaning in each culture. 沉默在每种文化中都有确切的含义。
    C、People generally speak slowly and softly in high-context cultures. 在高语境文化中,人们通常会缓慢而轻柔地讲话。
    D、People in high-context cultures can identify the context of silence. 高语境文化中的人们可以判断沉默的语境。

7、Which of the following statements is NOT a component of individualism culture? 以下哪项陈述不属于个人主义文化?
    A、Interpersonal relations are divided into in-group and out-group relations. 人际关系分为内群体和外群体的关系。
    B、Independence, rather than interdependence, is stressed. 强调独立而不是相互依存。
    C、The uniqueness of each individual is of paramount value. 每个人的独特性都是至关重要的。
    D、The individual is the most critical unit in any social setting. 个人是任何社会环境中最关键的部分。

8、Communication in collectivist cultures tends to be high-context, because: 集体主义文化中的交流往往是高语境的,因为:
    A、People in collectivist cultures are more diversified. 在集体主义文化中人们更多样化。
    B、People in collectivist cultures rely more on oral and written communication. 在集体主义文化中人们更依赖于口头和书面交流。
    C、People in collectivist cultures place more emphasis on interpersonal harmony. 在集体主义文化中人们更重视人际和谐。
    D、Individual interests take precedence over those of the group. 个人利益优先于群体利益。

9、Which of the following characteristics is a feature of low-uncertainty-avoidance culture? 以下那个选项是低不确定性规避文化的特征?
    A、People believe that life carries the potential for continual hazards. 人们相信生活具有持续危害的可能性。
    B、Written rules, planning, rituals, and conventions are emphasised. 强调书面规则,计划,仪式和惯例。
    C、People tend to have relatively high levels of anxiety and stress about the future. 人们往往有较高水平的对未来的焦虑和压力。
    D、People dislike the structure associated with the hierarchy. 人们不喜欢与阶层相关联的结构。

10、A person displays traits of high-uncertainty avoidance if she: 一个人在以下情况下会表现出高度不确定性回避的特征:
    A、Embraces social and cultural changes. 拥抱社会和文化变革
    B、Feels less constrained by social rules. 较少受到社会规则的束缚
    C、Is interested in the unusual, peculiar and new things. 对不寻常,奇特和新事物感兴趣
    D、Emphasises tradition and consensus. 强调传统和共识

11、Which of the following characteristics is a feature of a low-power-distance country? 以下哪个特征是低权力距离国家的特征?
    A、The use of formal title is prevalent. 正式头衔的使用很普遍。
    B、Superiors want to look less powerful than they really are. 上级希望自己看起来没有实际的强大。
    C、Children are expected to be obedient toward parents. 孩子们应该听父母的话。
    D、People believe that that power and authority are facts of life. 人们相信权力和权威是生活的事实。

12、The terms “masculinity” and “femininity” used by Hofstede is referred to by other scholars as 霍夫斯泰德提出的“男性气质”和“女性气质”被其他学者称为
    A、Career success and quality of life 事业成功和生活质量
    B、Authority and egalitarianism 权威与平均主义
    C、Long-term oriented and short-term oriented 长期导向和短期导向
    D、Material achievement and spirituality 物质成就和精神性

13、Norway and Sweden are two nations at the top of Hofstede’s femininity ratings because in the two countries: 挪威和瑞典是霍夫斯泰德认为的女性气质等级最高的两个国家,因为在这两个国家中:
    A、There tend to be a lower representation by women in public office. 妇女在公职中的任职比例往往较低。
    B、Women often find it difficult to climb up career ladders. 妇女基本很难有升职机会。
    C、Emotional gender role overlap significantly. 情感的性别角色重叠显著。
    D、Women are more moderate and tender than men. 女人比男人更温和温柔。

14、Leon prefers a job that is easier and has higher payment at the beginning, but has low promotion potential, rather than a job that is hard and low-paid, but very good for your career development. We may say that Leon is in a 莱昂更喜欢一开始比较容易,薪水较高,但升职潜力不大的工作,而不是辛苦且薪水低,但对职业发展有好处的工作。因此可以说,利昂处于
    A、Short-term oriented culture 短期导向文化
    B、Long-term oriented culture 长期导向文化
    C、Feminine culture 女性文化
    D、Masculine culture 男性文化

15、Men in masculine cultures are expected to: 男性文化中的男性被认为是:
    A、Encounter gendered “glass ceiling” in career advancement. 在职业发展中遇到性别“天花板效应”。
    B、Achieve excellent material production, service, and presentation. 实现出色的物质生产,服务和表现。
    C、Spend considerable time on nurturing children. 花大量时间养育孩子。
    D、Display traits such as gentleness, empathy, humility, and sensitivity traditionally cited as feminine. 表现出传统上被称为女性的特征,例如温柔,同理心,谦卑和敏感。

16、You always plan your travel in detail to reduce any unexpected risk that might arise. This indicates that you are a _______ person. 你总是详细制定旅行计划,以减少可能出现的意外风险。这表示你是一个_______的人
    A、Individualistic 个人主义的
    B、High-power-distance 高权力距离
    C、High-uncertainty-avoidance 高不确定性规避
    D、Short-term oriented 短期导向

17、Cultural behaviours are the outward manifestation of our internalised values and beliefs. 文化行为是我们的内在价值观和信仰的外在表现。

18、The influence of cultural value can be found in almost every context of human activity. 文化价值的影响几乎体现在所有的人类活动的范围内。

19、Northern and Western Europe and North America are generally marked as high-context societies. 北欧和西欧以及北美通常被认为是高语境社会。

20、In comparison to low-context cultures, people in high-context cultures are more or less homogeneous. 与低语境文化相比,高语境文化中的人们或多或少是同质的。

21、People in high-context cultures emphasise oral and written communications, rather than nonverbal messages. 高语境文化中的人们强调口头和书面交流,而不是非语言信息。

22、People in high-context cultures place more emphasis on avoiding saying or doing things that could upset others and potentially damage relationships. 在高语境文化中,人们更重视避免说或做可能有损他人或伤害关系的事情。

23、People in collectivist cultures are more likely to adopt a win-or-lose perspective in conflict management. 在集体主义文化中的人在竞争中更有可能持有非赢即输的观点。

24、In comparison to that in low-uncertainty-avoidance cultures, students in high-uncertainty-avoidance cultures are more likely to be awarded for innovative approaches to problem-solving. 与避免低不确定性的文化相比,避免高不确定性的文化的学生更有可能因创新解决问题的方法而获得成功。

25、In Cambodia and Thailand, people are expected to show respect for monks. When people encounter monks, they greet and take leave with formal greetings. In this aspect, we can say that Cambodia and Thailand are low-power-distance countries. 在柬埔寨和泰国,人们对僧侣非常尊重。 当人们遇到和尚时,他们会打招呼并致以正式问候。 从这个角度来看,我们可以说柬埔寨和泰国是低权力距离国家。

26、Corporate organisations in China, which rank high on the long-term orientation scale, would focus more on obtaining market share and rewarding employees based on organisational loyalty. 中国企业组织中,那些以长期导向为主的公司更多地专注于获得市场份额并基于对组织的忠诚度来奖励员工。

27、The employment structures of organisations in long-term orientation cultures are more fluid and transient. 公司、组织的结构在长期导向的文化中更加易变和短暂。

28、People in low-context communication might find silence uncomfortable. They feel a need to speak. 处于低语境中的人们可能会对沉默的环境感到不适, 他们觉得有必要发言。

29、People in low-context communication are expected to communicate in ways that are consistent with their feelings. 低语境文化交流中的人们主要以与自己的感受相一致的方式进行交流。

30、The majority of the world’s population lives in collectivistic societies. In these societies, group interests take precedence over those of the individual. 世界上大多数人口都生活在集体社会中,在这种社会中群体利益优先于个人利益。

31、Companies in short-term oriented cultures spend more time building situational ethics and self-discipline. 处于短期导向文化的公司会花更多的时间建立情境伦理和自律性。

Chapter 4 Cultural and Identity 文化与认同

单元测验

1、In the following answers, which one is not correct about Identity. 在下面的回答中,哪一个关于身份的解释是不正确的?
    A、Identity is a term frequently used in media reports, popular culture discussions, academic studies, and numerous other contexts. 身份是一个经常在媒体报道、流行文化讨论、学术研究和许多其他情境中使用的术语。
    B、Identity is an abstract, complex, dynamic, and socially-constructed concept. 身份是一个抽象的、复杂的、动态的、社会建构的概念。
    C、It can be defined or explained adequately. 它可以被充分地定义或解释。
    D、Identities are dynamic and multiple. 身份是动态的和多重的。

2、According to Fong’s definition, which statement of identity is not related to his opinion. 根据方的定义,哪一种关于“身份”陈述与他的观点无关?
    A、Culture and cultural identity in the study of intercultural relations have become umbrella terms that subsume racial and ethnic identity. 在跨文化关系研究中,文化和文化认同已成为包含种族和族裔认同的总称。
    B、The identification of communications of a shared system of symbolic verbal and nonverbal behavior that is meaningful to group members who have a sense of belonging and who share traditions, heritage, language, and similar norms of appropriate behavior. 识别符号语言和非语言行为的共享系统的身份沟通,这对有归属感的群体成员和共享传统、遗产、语言和适当行为的类似规范有意义。
    C、Cultural identity is a social construction. 文化认同是一种社会建构。
    D、Cultural identity is what we construct whenever we are in contact with other human beings, regardless of whether they are from the same’ environment’ or not. 文化身份是我们在与他人接触时所构建的,无论他们是否来自相同的“环境”。

3、When we talk about race and identity, in the following answers, which one is not correct about racial identity? 当我们在谈及种族和身份的时候,在下面的回答中,哪一个关于种族身份是不正确的。
    A、Racial classifications and identity are usually associated with a person’s external physical traits. 种族分类和身份通常与一个人的外在身体特征有关。
    B、Race is a social construct, it arises from historical attempts to categorize people into different groups. 种族是一种社会建构,它产生于将人划分为不同群体的历史尝试。
    C、The concept of race is further deconstructed by centuries of genetic intermixing. 几个世纪的基因混合进一步解构了种族的概念。
    D、Race can not be used to categorize people. 种族不能被用来分类人。

4、Where does not the most influential Chinese perspectives on the issue of gender come from? 中国对性别问题最具影响力的观点来自哪里?
    A、Yin and Yang 阴和阳
    B、Confucianism 儒家思想
    C、Daoism 道教
    D、Hinduism 印度教

5、What does gender identity not refer to. 性别认同不包含下列哪个概念?
    A、A socially constructed concept. 社会建构的概念
    B、How a particular culture differentiates masculine and feminine social roles. 某一特定文化如何区分男性和女性的社会角色
    C、A constantly changing state. 不断变化的状态
    D、Biological sex or sexual identity. 生理性别或性身份

6、In the following answers, which one is not correct about Ethnic identity. 在以下的回答中,哪一个是不正确的民族身份?
    A、Most people consider their ethnic identity to come from the family. 大多数人认为他们的种族身份来自于家庭
    B、In some areas, people’s sense of ethnic identity tends to remain strong because traditional cultural practices, beliefs, values, religion, and often language are followed and perpetuated. 在某些领域,人们的民族认同感倾向于保持强烈的情感表达,因为传统文化习俗、信仰、价值观、宗教和语言被遵循和延续
    C、Ethnic identity, is derived from a sense of shared heritage, history, traditions, values, similar behaviors, geographical area of origin, and in some instances, language. 民族认同,是源于共同的遗产、历史、传统、价值观、相似的行为、起源的地理区域,在某些情况下,是语言
    D、Some people’s ethnic identity is derived from a cultural grouping that transcends national borders and is grounded in common cultural beliefs, practices, and in many cases, a shared language. 有些人的种族认同来自一个超越国界的文化群体,并基于共同的文化信仰、习俗,在许多情况下,是一种共同的语言

7、According to the Fifth National Population Census of 2000, what percentage of the Chinese population dose Han Chinese account for? 根据2000年第五次全国人口普查,汉族人占中国人口的百分比是多少?
    A、9% 9%
    B、50% 50%
    C、99% 99%
    D、More than 91% 超过91%

8、Where are not the 55 minority ethnic groups distributed extensively throughout different regions of China? 下列哪一个地区不是55个少数民族分布散居的地区?
    A、Southwest China 中国的西南地区
    B、Northwest China 中国的西北地区
    C、Northeast China 中国的东北地区
    D、Middle part of China 中国的中部地区

9、Which five autonomous regions are set up to deal with their own affairs under regional autonomy? 中国设立了哪5个自治区,在区域自治的情况下处理各自的事务?
    A、Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Guangxi, Ningxia and Tibet 内蒙古、新疆、广西、宁夏、西藏
    B、Inner Mongolia, Chongqing, Guangxi, Ningxia and Tibet 内蒙古、重庆、广西、宁夏、西藏
    C、Inner Mongolia, Chongqing, Shanghai, Ningxia and Tibet 内蒙古、重庆、上海、宁夏、西藏
    D、Inner Mongolia, Tianjin, Shanghai, Ningxia and Tibet 内蒙古、天津、上海、宁夏和西藏

10、In the following answers, which one is not correct about national identity? 在以下的回答中,关于国家认同,哪一个是不正确的?
    A、National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. 国家认同是一个人对一个国家或民族的认同或归属感
    B、Most people associate their national identity with the nation where they were getting education. 大多数人将他们的国家身份与他们接受教育的国家联系在一起
    C、National identity becomes more pronounced, when people are away from their home country. 当人们远离自己的祖国时,国家身份变得更加明显
    D、National identity can also be acquired through immigration and naturalization. 也可以通过移民和归化获得国家特性

11、Which major stages has Chinese society progressed through? 中国社会经历了哪些主要阶段?
    A、Primitive Society, Slave Society. 原始社会,奴隶社会
    B、Primitive Society, Slave Society, Feudal Society. 原始社会,奴隶社会,封建社会
    C、Primitive Society, Slave Society, Feudal Society, Semi-feudal and Semi-colonial Society. 原始社会、奴隶社会、封建社会、半封建半殖民地社会
    D、Primitive Society, Slave Society, Feudal Society, Semi-feudal and Semi-colonial Society, and Socialist Society. 原始社会、奴隶社会、封建社会、半封建半殖民地社会、社会主义社会

12、Which Dynasty is the oldest dynasty in China? 中国最古老的王朝是哪个朝代?
    A、Xia Dynasty 夏朝
    B、Shang Dynasty 商朝
    C、Han Dynasty 汉代
    D、Qin Dynasty 秦朝

13、In the following answers, which one is not correct about individuals from the northern part of Belgium? 在以下的回答中,哪一个关于来自比利时北部的个体的描述是不正确的?
    A、They are likely to identify themselves as Dutch speaking. 他们可能认为自己说荷兰语
    B、It refers to linguistic and ethnic identity. 它指的是语言和民族身份
    C、They take Belgians for national identity. 他们把比利时人当作国家身份
    D、They take Belgians for regional identity. 他们把比利时人当作地区认同

14、Which answer is correct about identity development? 关于身份发展,哪个答案是正确的?
    A、It can be described as the dynamic process of familial influences, cultural socialization, and personal experiences. 它可以被描述为家庭影响、文化社会化和个人经历的动态过程
    B、It can be described as the dynamic process of scientific influences, cultural socialization, and personal experiences. 它可以被描述为科学影响、文化社会化和个人经验的动态过程
    C、It can be described as the dynamic process of familial influences, religionary socialization, and personal experiences. 它可以被描述为家庭影响、宗教社会化和个人经历的动态过程
    D、It can be described as the dynamic process of familial influences, cultural socialization, and commercial experiences. 它可以被描述为家庭影响、文化社会化和商业经验的动态过程

15、Jean S. Phinney (1992) developed a three-stage model of ethnic identity development,which stage is not included? Jean S. Phinney(1992)提出了一个民族认同发展的三阶段模型,没有包括哪个阶段?
    A、Unexamined ethnic identity, is characterized by the lack of exploration of ethnicity 未经检验的民族认同,其特征是缺乏对民族的探索
    B、Ethnic identity search, the second stage, begins when individuals become interested in learning about and understanding their own ethnicity. 族裔认同搜索是第二阶段,当个人对学习和理解自己的族裔感兴趣时开始
    C、Ethnic identity achievement is reached when individuals have a clear and confident understanding of their own cultural identity. 当个人对自己的文化身份有清晰和自信的理解时,民族身份成就就达到了
    D、Identity achievement can not provide greater self-confidence and enhance feelings of personal worth. 身份成就不能提供更大的自信和增强个人价值感

16、Identity is an abstract, complex, dynamic, and socially-constructed concept. 身份是一个抽象的、复杂的、动态的、社会建构的概念。

17、It is easy to construct a single, concise definition of identity. 我们很容易为身份定义一个单一而简明的定义。

18、Modern science has discovered very little genetic variation among human beings, which enhances the belief that race can be used to categorize people. 现代科学几乎没有发现人类之间的基因变异,这增强了种族可以用来对人进行分类的信念。

19、Today, racial classifications and identity are usually associated with a person’s external physical traits. 种族分类和身份通常与一个人的外在身体特征联系在一起。

20、Gender identity is similar with biological sex or sexual identity. 性别身份与生理性别或性身份相似。

21、Gender identity varies across cultures and is constantly changing. 性别认同因文化而异,并在不断变化。

22、A culture’s gender norms can not influence career decisions. 一种文化的性别规范不能影响职业决策。

23、In today’s China, masculinity markers include the centrality of work and education, being a successful provider and protector, and the accumulation of wealth and power. 在今天的中国,男性的标志包括工作和教育的中心地位,成为一个成功的供养者和保护者,以及财富和权力的积累。

24、Ethnic identity is derived from a sense of shared heritage, history, traditions, values, similar behaviors, geographical area of origin, and, in some instances, language. 民族认同源于共同的遗产、历史、传统、价值观、相似的行为、起源的地理区域,在某些情况下,还有语言。

25、Some people’s ethnic identity is derived from a cultural grouping that transcends national borders and is grounded in common cultural beliefs, practices, and in many cases, a shared language. 有些人的民族认同源于一个超越国界的文化群体,并基于共同的文化信仰、习俗,在许多情况下,还基于共同的语言。

26、National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one’s hometown. 国家身份是一个人对自己家乡的认同或归属感。

27、National identity becomes more pronounced when people are away from their home country. 当人们远离自己的祖国时,国家身份变得更加明显。

28、Food culture has nothing to do with identity. 饮食文化与身份无关。

29、Identity development can be described as the dynamic process of familial influences, cultural socialization, and personal experiences. 身份发展可以被描述为家庭影响、文化社会化和个人经验的动态过程。

30、Media affects little in the development of your identity. 媒体对你的身份发展几乎没有影响。

Chapter 7 Intercultural Conflicts 文化冲突

第七章单元测验

1、In the following answers, which one is not correct about intercultural conflict? 在以下答案中,哪一个关于跨文化冲突的说法是不正确的?
    A、In an intercultural context, conflict is defined as explicit or implicit emotional struggles or frustrations between people from different cultures over perceived incompatible goals, norms, values, face concerns, scarce resources, and communication outcomes. 在跨文化背景下,冲突被定义为来自不同文化的人们之间,就感知到的不相容的目标、规范、价值观、面子问题、稀缺资源和沟通结果而发生的显性或隐性情感斗争或挫折。
    B、Intercultural conflict occurs between individuals or social groups that are separated by cultural boundaries. Individuals, even within the same society, are potentially members of many different groups, organized in different ways by different criteria. 跨文化冲突发生在被文化差异隔开的个人或社会群体之间。 个人,即使在同一个社会中,也可能是许多不同群体的成员,按照不同的标准以不同的方式组织起来。
    C、The micro, or individual, level of intercultural conflict refers to the unique attitudes, dispositions, and beliefs that each individual brings into a conflict. 跨文化冲突的微观或个人层面是指每个人在冲突中所具有的独特态度、性格和信念。
    D、Various value patterns could not be the primary cause of intercultural frustration. 多样化的价值模式不可能是跨文化挫折的主要原因。

2、The two dimension, the expectations and structure of power distance, combine to yield four distinct approaches, which approach is not belong to them? 权力距离的期望和结构这两个维度结合起来产生四种的方法,哪一种方法不属于它们?
    A、Individualism combined with a small power distance 个人主义结合低权力距离
    B、Collectivism combined with a large power distance Cultural identity is a social construction 集体主义与高权力距离相结合
    C、Collectivism combined with a small power distance 集体主义结合低权力距离
    D、Individualism combined with a medium power distance 个人主义与中等权力距离相结合

3、According to Young Kim’s Model of Intercultural Conflict, Young Kim categorized intercultural conflict into three levels: Micro, Intermediary, and Macro Levels. Which answer is not correct about the three levels? 根据 Young Kim 的跨文化冲突模型,Young Kim 将跨文化冲突分为三个层次:微观、中观和宏观层次。以下哪个答案是不正确的?
    A、The micro, or individual, level of intercultural conflict refers to the unique attitudes, dispositions, and beliefs that each individual brings into a conflict. 跨文化冲突的微观或个人层面是指每个人在冲突中所具有的独特态度、性格和信念。
    B、The intermediary level of intercultural conflict refers to the actual location and context of the conflict. 跨文化冲突的中观层面是指冲突的实际地点和背景。
    C、The macro, or societal, level of intercultural conflict includes factors that are probably out of the interactants’ control. 跨文化冲突的宏观或社会层面包括互动者可能无法控制的因素。
    D、Insecurity/frustration refers to the degree of considerable uncertainty or fear of an individual, which is directed toward in-group members. 不安全感/挫败感是指个人的相当大的不确定性或恐惧感,它是针对群体内成员的。

4、What factors are noted in Ting-Toomey and Oetzel’s culture-based social ecological conflict Model? Ting-Toomey 和 Oetzel 的基于文化的社会生态冲突模型提及了哪些因素?
    A、primary orientation factors, situational appraisals, macroconflict processes, and conflict competence. 主要取向因素、情境评估、宏观冲突过程和冲突能力。
    B、primary orientation factors, in-group appraisals, microconflict processes, and conflict competence. 主要取向因素、小组内评估、微观冲突过程和冲突能力。
    C、primary orientation factors, situational appraisals, microconflict processes, and conflict competence. 主要取向因素、情境评估、微观冲突过程和冲突能力。
    D、primary orientation factors, out-group appraisals, microconflict processes, and conflict competence. 主要取向因素、外群体评价、微观冲突过程和冲突能力。

5、Ting-Toomey and Oetzel’s model consists of conflict competence criteria and outcomes. Which dimensions are included in this model? Ting-Toomey 和 Oetzel 的模型由冲突能力标准和结果组成。此模型包含哪些维度?
    A、effectiveness/satisfaction, productivity/ appropriateness, and principled ethics. 有效性/满意度、生产力/适当性和原则伦理。
    B、effectiveness/appropriateness, productivity/unsatisfactorily, and principled ethics. 有效性/适当性、生产力/不令人满意和原则伦理。
    C、effectiveness/appropriateness, productivity/satisfaction, and regular rules. 有效性/适当性、生产力/满意度和常规规则。
    D、effectiveness/appropriateness, productivity/satisfaction, and principled ethics. 有效性/适当性、生产力/满意度和原则伦理。

6、In the following answers, which one is not correct about the concept of face. 在以下答案中,哪一个关于面子的概念是不正确的?
    A、The concept of face can not explain how people of different cultures manage conflict. 面子的概念不能解释不同文化的人如何处理冲突。
    B、The term “face” refers to a person’s positive sense of self-worth or self-image experienced during communicative situations. 术语“面子”是指一个人在交流情境中体验到的积极的自我价值感或自我形象。
    C、Face is an emotional extension of a self-concept. Furthermore, it is considered as a universal concept. 面子是自我概念的情感延伸, 此外,它被认为是一个普世的概念。
    D、People in all cultures have a sense of face, but the specific meanings of these faces may vary across cultures. 所有文化中的人都有面子感,但这些面子的具体含义可能因文化而异。

7、What types of faces did Ting-Toomey and her associates identify? Ting-Toomey 与她同事划分出哪些类型的面子?
    A、self-face, second-face, and mutual-face. 自我的面子、第二面子和相互的面子。
    B、self-face, other-face, and group-face. 自我的面子、他人的面子和群体的面子。
    C、self-face, other-face, and mutual-face. 自我的面子、他人的面子和相互的面子。
    D、inner-face, other-face, and mutual-face. 内在面子、其他面子和相互的面子。

8、In the following answers, which one is not correct about the three types of faces? 关于三种类型的面子,以下哪一个是不正确的?
    A、Self-face refers to the concern for one’s own image. 自我的面子是指对自己形象的关注。
    B、Other-face refers to the concern for another’s image. 他人的面子是指对他人形象的关注。
    C、Group-face refers to the concern for group’s connection. 群体的面子是指对群体之间联系的关注。
    D、Mutual-face refers to the concern for one’s relationship with another party or for both parties’ images. 面子是指对自己与另一方的关系或双方形象的关注。

9、What are not correct about facework in cultural conflict situations? 在文化冲突情境下,哪些面子工作不正确?
    A、In most conflict situations, interactants are required to defend or save face when they are threatened or attacked. The various ways by which one deals with conflict and face are collectively known as facework. 在大多数冲突情况下,互动者在受到威胁或攻击时需要防御或挽回面子。处理冲突和面子的各种方式统称为面子工作。
    B、Facework refers to the communicative strategies, which are employed to either manage one’s own face or support or challenge another’s face. 面子工作是指交际策略,用于管理自己的面孔或支持或挑战他人的面孔。
    C、Facework can be employed to initiate, manage, or terminate conflict. 面子工作可用于发起、管理或终止冲突。
    D、Cross-cultural research has shown that collectivists, such as Americans, tend to prefer defensive or confrontational facework behavior. 跨文化研究表明,集体主义者,例如美国人,往往更喜欢防御性或对抗性的面部修饰行为。

10、Which two dimensions is an individual’s conflict interaction style based on? 个人的冲突互动风格基于哪两个维度?
    A、The first is the degree to which a person asserts a self-face need; The second is how cooperative a person is and how much he or she incorporates the interests of the other. 首先是一个人主张自我面子需要的程度;第二个是一个人的合作程度以及他在多大程度上融入了对方的利益。
    B、The first is the degree to which a person asserts a facework need; The second is how cooperative a person is and how much he or she incorporates the interests of the other. 第一个是一个人主张面子需求的程度;第二个是一个人的合作程度以及他或她在多大程度上融入了对方的利益。
    C、The first is the degree to which a person asserts a self-face need; The second is how disoperative a person is and how much he or she incorporates the interests of the other. 第一个是一个人主张自我面子需要的程度;第二个是一个人的行动能力有多差,以及他或她在多大程度上融入了对方的利益。
    D、The first is the degree to which a person asserts a self-face need; The second is how strongly a person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests during conflict. 第一个是一个人主张自我面子需要的程度;第二个是一个人在冲突中寻求满足自己利益的强烈程度。

11、What are the The five primary communication styles? 五种主要的沟通方式是什么?
    A、Dominating, integrating, obliging, learning, and compromising 支配、整合、服从、学习和妥协
    B、Dominating, organizing, obliging, avoiding, and compromising 支配、组织、服从、回避和妥协
    C、Dominating, integrating, obliging, avoiding, and compromising 支配、整合、服从、回避和妥协
    D、Dominating, integrating, obliging, understanding, and compromising 支配、整合、服从、理解和妥协

12、What are the three secondary styles of managing conflict? 管理冲突的三种次要方式是什么?
    A、Rational expression, third-party help, and neglect. 理性表达、第三方帮助、忽略。
    B、Emotional expression, third-party help, and neglect. 情感表达、第三方帮助、忽略。
    C、Emotional expression, third-party help, and appreciation. 情感表达、第三方帮助、赏识。
    D、Emotional expression, other help, and neglect. 情感表达、其他帮助和忽略。

13、In the following answers, which one is not correct about individualistic and collectivistic approaches to conflict? 在以下答案中,关于个人主义和集体主义的冲突方法,哪一个是不正确的?
    A、Individualists and collectivists tend to follow an outcome-oriented approach and a process-oriented approach to intercultural conflict. 个人主义者和集体主义者倾向于遵循以结果为导向的方法和以过程为导向的方法应对跨文化冲突。
    B、The outcome-oriented approach emphasizes the importance of asserting one’s self-identity and the accomplishment of perceived tangible outcomes or goals, while the process-oriented approach focuses on either mutual-face or group-face interests. 结果导向的方法强调坚持自我认同,实现有形的结果或目标的重要性,而过程导向的方法则侧重于相互或群体利益。
    C、For individualists, conflict is closely related to goals or outcomes. Conflict is “end-oriented” in that the individualist seeks to achieve something. 对于个人主义者来说,冲突与目标或结果密切相关。冲突是“目的导向的”,因为个人主义者寻求实现某些目标。
    D、For the collectivists, conflict is considered not threatening when the parties move on to substantive issues without proper facework management. 对于集体主义者来说,当各方在没有适当的面子管理的情况下转向实质性问题时,冲突被认为没有威胁。

14、Which answer is not correct about high-context and low-context culture? 关于高语境文化和低语境文化哪个答案是不正确的?
    A、In high-context cultures, most of the information during communication is found in the physical context internalized in person, while very little is found in the explicit context. 在高语境文化中,交流中的大部分信息是在人内化的物理语境中发现的,而在外显语境中发现的信息很少。
    B、In low-context cultures, majority of information is in the explicit context. 在低语境文化中,大部分信息都在外显语境中。
    C、In low-context cultures such as the United States, individuals are more likely to connect the conflict issue with the persons involved. 在美国等低语境文化中,个人更可能将冲突问题与所涉及的人联系起来。
    D、In high-context cultures such as China, the conflict issue and the persons involved are typically interconnected. For example, directly disagreeing with someone may be seen as insulting in China and cause one to lose face. 在中国这样的高语境文化中,冲突问题和所涉及的人通常是相互关联的。 例如,直白地反对某人在中国可能会被视为侮辱且丢面子。

15、Based on the research of Thomas and Kilmann coincide with those outlined earlier in the face negotiation theory,which strategy is not included? Thomas 和 Kilmann 的研究与前文面子协商理论中的概述不谋而合,哪一种冲突管理策略不包括在内?
    A、Avoiding 回避
    B、Forcing 协作
    C、Accommodation 迁就
    D、Adaption 适应

16、Intercultural conflict occurs between individuals or social groups that are separated by cultural boundaries. Individuals, even within the same society, are potentially members of many different groups, organized in different ways by different criteria. 跨文化冲突发生在被文化界限隔开的个人或社会群体之间。 个人,即使在同一个社会中,也可能是许多不同群体的成员,按照不同的标准以不同的方式组织起来。

17、Our attitudes, expectations, and behaviors are generally influenced by and are a result of our individualistic or collectivistic cultural value patterns. 我们的态度、期望和行为通常是受到我们个人主义或集体主义文化价值观影响下的结果。

18、Someone from a collectivistic culture would most likely approach a certain situation with self-serving goals in mind. 来自集体主义文化的人更可能会带着自私的目标来处理某些情况。

19、Individualism combined with a small power distance leads to an benevolent conflict approach. 个人主义与低权力距离相结合会导致一种宽容的冲突处理方法。

20、According to Kim’s model, cognitive simplicity/ rigidity refers to how inflexible an individual’s mindset is about people from different cultures. 根据 Kim 的模型,认知简单/僵化是指个人对来自不同文化的人的思维方式的僵化程度。

21、Someone exercising a dominating approach could use his or her authority, expertise, or rank to try to win the conflict. 采取霸权方式的人可能利用他的权威、专业知识或阶层在冲突中获胜。

22、An individual who tries to balance both self-face and other-face needs does not adopt a compromising style. 试图平衡自我面子和他人面子需求的人不会采取妥协的风格。

23、If one puts the other-face need ahead of self-face face, it assumes an obliging style. This person will try to accommodate the opponent or try to satisfy the needs of the other before satisfying their own needs. 如果一个人把他人的面子置于自己的面子之前,他就会呈现出一种乐于助人的风格。这个人会在满足自己的需求之前,先尝试适应对方或尝试满足对方的需求。

24、In general, individualists tend to employ more dominating styles during conflict whereas collectivists tend to use more integrative, obliging, and avoiding styles. 一般来说,个人主义者在冲突中倾向于使用更多的支配风格,而集体主义者倾向于使用更综合、顺从和回避的风格。

25、Korean, Japanese, and American college students adopted fewer avoidance-type conflict styles than Chinese students. 韩国、日本和美国大学生采用回避型冲突风格的比中国学生少。

26、With the strategy of Education/Persuasion, one introduces his or her value orientation in the hopes that the opposing party would realize its value and adopt it. 通过教育/说服策略,一个人介绍他或她的价值取向,希望对方意识到它的价值并采纳它。

27、Kohls and Buller believe that not all conflicts are equal in terms of centrality and consensus. 科尔斯和布勒认为,就中心性和共识而言,并非所有冲突都是平等的。

28、The contextual model that guides organizations includes cultural, microcultural, environmental, perceptual, and socio-relational contexts and discusses how they affect one’s decision to use verbal and nonverbal messages. 指导组织的语境模型包括文化、微观文化、环境、感知和社会关系语境,并讨论它们如何影响一个人使用语言和非语言信息的决定。